Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Heimlich valve in the treatment of pneumothorax

A válvula de Heimlich no tratamento do pneumotórax

Ricardo Beytuti, Letícia Engber Odilon Villiger, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Rodrigo Afonso Silva, Angelo Fernandez, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(3):115-119

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: Heimlich valve has been described as a substitute for water-sealed drainage systems. The objective of this study by the Thoracic Surgery Service of the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical Center, is to assess its effectiveness in the treatment of pneumothorax and its ease of operation, safety, and patient toleration. Methods: From June/97 to August/00, 107 patients with pneumotoraxes of different etiologies were analyzed. The majority (76%) were classified radiologically as suffering from moderate or large pneumothorax, three hypertensive pneumothorax, and one was bilateral. The pleural cavity was drained with teflon or polyurethane plastic pig-tail catheters (10.2F, 14F, straight 11F connected to the Heimlich valve or the valve was connected directly to the thoracic drain in post-thoracotomy patients). Results: The valve remained in place for one to 120 days (mean 4 days). Tolerance to the system was good in 89% of cases. There were no serious complication linked to the system. Associated pleural effusion in 20 patients (18.5%) did not prevent the system from functioning well. Only two patients (1.8%) developed subcutaneous emphysema, and therefore, a 36F Tubular drain under water seal was chosen. Thoracotomy for decortication was indicated in one patient (0.9%). Twenty patients (18.5%) were treated on an outpatient basis. Conclusions: The Heimlich valve confirmed its effectiveness in resolving pneumothorax of different etiologies and in postoperative air leaks. Its operation was simpler than that of conventional systems. The good toleration and safety mentioned by the patients was a determining factor in early hospital discharge and a motive for outpatient treatment.

 


Keywords: Pneumothorax. Pleura. Postural drainage.

 


Mediastinal evaluation in lung cancer staging

Avaliação mediastinal no estadiamento do câncer do pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Aldo Rodrigues Junqueira Jr., Ricardo H. Bammann, Ricardo Beyruti, Fábio B. Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(1):17-22

Abstract PDF PT

The presence of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in lung cancer has a great influence on treatment selection and prognosis, and the diagnosis of lymphatic metastasis must be accurate. CT chest scans and mediastinoscopy are the diagnostic tools available to detect mediastinal lymph node metastases and to establish preoperative staging. Lymph node size evaluated by CT scans is not an acceptable criterion in the patients studied here. The aim of this study was to find out a representative pattern of size to indicate the possibility of neoplastic invasion in the population studied. Fifty consecutive patients were operated on and were submitted to pulmonary resection and mediastinal dissection to treat lung cancer. Seventy-four percent of the lymph nodes with transverse section of more than 3 cm had no neoplastic invasion. CT scans and mediastinoscopy have similar sensitivity (close to 65%), but mediastinoscopy has higher specificity (100%). This means that the authors must have histologic confirmation of any suspected lymph node to achieve a correct staging.

 


Keywords: Carcinoma, non-small cell. Lung neoplasias. Lymph nodes. Lymphatic metastasis. Mediatinoscopy. Neoplasm, staging. CT scanning.

 


Bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: their role of transbronchial biopsy in HIV-infected and in immunocompetent patients

Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose: papel da biópsia transbrônquica em imunocompetentes e em HIV-positivos

Ricardo H. Bammann, Angelo Fernandez, Carla M.P. Vázquez, Maria Rita E. Araújo, Kátia R.M. Leite

J Bras Pneumol.1999;25(4):207-212

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Bronchoscopy is useful in the diagnosis of tuberculosis suspects with a "negative" sputum smear. The objectives of this study were: to assess yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) both in HIV-positive patients (group 1) and immunocompetent individuals (group 2), based on simple and most available laboratory techniques in clinical practice. Patients and methods: The authors performed 319 bronchoscopies in 302 patients. BAL and TBB were sequentially performed in the same lung in all cases. Tuberculosis was diagnosed based on the results of acid-fast stains (AFS) from the lavage (ZN), culture for mycobacteria (LJ), and histological examination of biopsies (HE and ZN). Results: Tuberculosis was the final diagnosis in 28 exams of group 1 (n = 214) and in 35 of group 2 (n = 105). There were abnormal endoscopic findings respectively in 3 and 10 patients. In group 1, AFS were positive in 7 cases, culture of BAL in 14, and TBB in 19. In group 2, AFS were positive in 13 cases, culture in 17, and biopsies in 31. TBB results compared to BAL were in concordance for group 1 (p = 0.823) and different for group 2 (p = 0.022). Immediate results (AFS and TBB) compared to later positive results of culture were similar for group 1 (p = 0.066) but not for group 2 (p = 0.001). There were eight episodes of pneumothorax (2.5%) and one death (0.36%). Conclusions: Both BAL and TBB should be performed whenever possible, aiming towards a higher yield of bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Both methods complement each other in immunocompetent patients, whereas TBB establishes a faster diagnosis for HIV-infected patients if associated to AFS.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy/methods. Smear-negative tuberculosis/diagnosis. Opportunistic infections related to AIDS/diagnosis.

 


Pleural effusion following ovarian hyperstimulation

Derrame pleural secundário à hiperestimulação ovariana

Jader Joel Machado Junqueira, Ricardo Helbert Bammann, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Ana Cristina Pugliesi de Castro, Augusto Ishy, Angelo Fernandez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):400-403

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is an iatrogenic complication that occurs in the luteal phase of an induced hormonal cycle. In most cases, the symptoms are self-limited and spontaneous regression occurs. However, severe cases are typically accompanied by acute respiratory distress. The objective of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of pleural effusion associated with OHSS in three patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. The patients ranged in age from 27 to 33 years. The onset of symptomatic pleural effusion (bilateral in all cases) occurred, on average, 43 days (range, 27-60 days) after initiation of hormone therapy for ovulation induction. All three patients required hospitalization for massive fluid resuscitation, and two required noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Although all three patients initially underwent thoracentesis, early recurrence of symptoms and pleural effusion prompted the use of drainage with a pigtail catheter. Despite the high output from the pleural drain (mean, 1,000 mL/day in the first week) and prolonged drainage (for 9-22 days), the outcomes were excellent: all three patients were discharged from hospital. Although pleural effusion secondary to OHSS is probably underdiagnosed, the associated morbidity should not be underestimated, especially because it affects potentially pregnant patients. In this study, early diagnosis and appropriate supportive measures yielded favorable results, limiting the surgical approach to adequate pleural drainage.

 


Keywords: Fertilization in vitro; Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; Pleural effusion.

 


Diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

Diagnóstico e estadiamento do câncer de pulmão

Angelo Fernandez, Fabio B. Jatene, Mauro Zamboni

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(4):219-228

Abstract PDF PT

Carcinoma of the lung can present in a number of guises and a number of possible and often complementary diagnostic approaches are available. The choice of procedure should reflect the presentation of the tumor, local expertise, intended management and patient preference. There are different methods of investigation: sputum cytology, fiberbronchoscopy, transbronchial biopsy, transbronchial needle aspiration, transthoracic fine needle aspiration, etc. The association of all of these methods increases the power of diagnosis. Staging is the measurement of the anatomical extent of a tumor in any given patient. The staging of cancer began with Denoix's TNM classification system, and, although several modifications were developed, it remains the basis of lung cancer staging systems up to now. Assigning patients to a particular TNM stage allows choosing the most appropriate therapy and provides prognostic information. Also, the impact of new therapeutic methods can be evaluated for efficacy and a comparison of the expected survival rates can be predicted.

 



Diagnosis and treatment of mediastinal tumors by thoracoscopy

Diagnóstico e tratamento dos tumores mediastinais por toracoscopia

José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Luís Marcelo Inaco Cirino, Angelo Fernandez, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Paulo Pego Fernandez, Luiz Tarcísio Britto Filomeno, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(4):169-174

Abstract PDF PT

Objectives: Thoracoscopic management of mediastinal tumors is still subject to analysis. Seventy-three patients were submitted to thoracoscopy for the treatment of mediastinal masses and were analyzed retrospectively, in order to evaluate the effectiveness and complications of the procedure. Methods: Between 1983 and 1999, 21 conventional thoracoscopies and 52 video-assisted thoracic surgeries were performed (33 for diagnostic purposes and 40 for therapy). Patient ages ranged from two to 81 years (mean 43.8) with a slight predominance of females over males (41 versus 32). All underwent general anesthesia using simple (22) or double lumen (51) intubation. Results: The histological type of tumor was identified in all patients. For therapeutic purposes, conversion to thoracotomy was necessary in nine patients. The reasons were tumor size and invasion of nearby structures, difficulty to continue dissection, to perform an upper lobectomy, and to suture the iatrogenic diaphragm lesion. Four patients died during the first 30 postoperative days as a consequence of their primary pathology. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy was confirmed to be an effective diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for the treatment of mediastinal disorders.

 


Keywords: Thoracoscopy, thoracic surgery, mediastinal neoplasms, mediastinal cysts.

 


Anthropometric index for quantitative assessment of pectus excavatum

Índice antropométrico para classificação quantitativa do pectus excavatum*

Eduardo B. Rebeis, Marcos N. Samano, Carlos T. Santos Dias, Ângelo Fernandez, José R. M. Campos, Fábio B. Jatene, Sérgio A. Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(6):501-507

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Background: Pectus excavatum is characterized by concave growth of costal cartilage and depression of the lower sternum. Clinical means of classifying these malformations are few and difficult to apply. Objective: To devise clinical tools for quantifying the deformity and comparing preoperative and postoperative findings. Method: A total of 10 pectus excavatum patients who underwent surgery in which the modified Robicsek technique was used by the Thoracic Surgery Group of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, were clinically and radiologically evaluated in the preoperative and postoperative periods. Ten control individuals, presenting no thoracic or radiological abnormalities, were submitted to identical evaluations. Deformities at the sternum notch level and at the point of maximum deformity were assessed using the anthropometric index and the Haller index. Results: Multivariate analysis of anthropometric index means revealed significant differences between preoperative and control values and between preoperative and postoperative values, as well as a non-significant difference between postoperative and control values. The same results were obtained when Haller index means were analyzed. A paired comparison of preoperative and postoperative means showed two distinct groups. An 86% canonical correlation was found between the anthropometric index and the Haller index. Conclusion: Patients with pectus excavatum can be quantitatively assessed in the preoperative and postoperative periods through the use of the anthropometric index, which allows objective, comparative evaluation of the results and is easily performed.

 


Keywords: Funnel Chest. Anthropometry/methods.

 


Bronchoalveolar lavage versus transbronchial biopsy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: comparative analysis of 287 examinations

Lavado broncoalveolar "versus" biópsia transbrônquica em pacientes HIV-positivos: análise comparativa de 287 exames

Ricardo H. Bammann, Angelo Fernandez, Carla M.P. Vázquez, Altamiro R. Dias

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(3):112-118

Abstract PDF PT

A total of 287 bronchoscopies were performed in 267 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial biopsies (TBB) were sequentially performed in the same lung, in all cases. Specimens were examined after routine laboratory procedures for microbiologic and histologic analysis. Age ranged from 16 to 78 (median 37.2); 228 were men (85.4%) and 39 were women. Dyspnea was the main symptom in 198 cases (69.0%) and interstitial infiltrates (diffuse or localized) were the most common findings at chest radiographs (179 patients, 62.4%). Endoscopic view was normal in 246 patients (85.7%). Mucosal lesions suggestive of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were visible in 12 cases (4.2%). BAL detected 97 infectious agents, simultaneous co-infection occurred in 3 cases. TBB identified 165 pathogens (9 of them in association), anticipating a better yield than BAL in the diagnosis of P. carinii (84 versus 51, respectively) and cytomegalovirus (35 v. 0). Biopsies were unique in establishing the appropriate diagnosis of extrabronchial cancer and describing inespecific pneumonitis. Altogether, a definite diagnosis was obtained by bronchoscopic examination (including endoscopic view, BAL and TBB) in 271 of 287 cases (94.4%). Infections were caused by P. carinii in 105 patients (36.6%), Mycobacterium sp in 40 (13.9%), cytomegalovirus in 35 (12.2%), C. neoformans in 13 (4.5%) etc. Malignancies (including KS) were found in 16 patients (5.6%). More than one pathologic process was present in 28 (9.8%). Nonspecific pneumonitis was diagnosed in 56 cases (19.5%) and normal lung in 20 (7.0%). Complications related to bronchoscopy were pneumothorax (8 patients, 2.8%), haemorrhage (8), thoracic pain (2) and distal pneumonia (2). Chest tubes were required in 4 patients, including one fatal case (mortality rate of 0.3%). Combining BAL and TBB results increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy in AIDS, with a low complication rate. If both techniques are performed, a higher number of infectious agents and more multiple causes of pulmonary disease may be identified.

 


Keywords: Bronchoscopy/methods. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications. Opportunistic infections related to AIDS/diagnosis.

 


Bedside tracheostomy: practical considerations

Traqueostomia à beira do leito: considerações práticas

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Angelo Fernandez, Ricardo Helbert Bammann

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):126-

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



Surgical treatment of congenital tracheal stenoses

Tratamento cirúrgico das estenoses traqueais congênitas

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Helio Minamoto, Lívia Caroline Barbosa Mariano, Angelo Fernandez, José Pinhata Otoch, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):515-520

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the outcomes of patients undergoing repair of congenital tracheal stenosis. Methods: This was a retrospective review of congenital tracheal stenosis patients treated between 2001 and 2007 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Six boys and one girl (age at diagnosis ranging from 28 days to 3 years) were included. Five of the patients also had cardiac or major vessel malformations. The stenosis length was short in three patients, medium in one and long in three. The techniques used were pericardial patch tracheoplasty in three patients, resection and anastomosis in two, slide tracheoplasty in one and vascular ring correction in one. One patient died during surgery due to hypoxia and hemodynamic instability, and one died from septic shock on postoperative day 11. Other complications included pneumonia, arrhythmia, stenosis at the anastomosis level, residual stenosis, granuloma formation and malacia. The mean follow-up period was 31 months; four patients were cured, and one required the use of a T-tube to maintain airway patency. Conclusions: Congenital tracheal stenosis is a curable disease. However, its repair is complex and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality.

 


Keywords: Tracheal stenosis/congenital; Tracheal diseases; Surgical procedures, operative.

 


 

 


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