Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Chapter 8 - Fungal infections in immunocompromised patients

Capítulo 8 - Infecções fúngicas em imunocomprometidos

Rodney Frare e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):142-147

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary complications are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, who lack of the basic mechanisms of cellular defense. Regardless of the cause of the immunodeficiency, the most common complications are infections (bacterial, viral or fungal). Among the fungal infections, aspergillosis is the most common (incidence, 1-9%; mortality, 55-92%) following organ transplant. Although pulmonary involvement is the most common form of aspergillosis, central nervous system involvement and sinusitis are not uncommon. On CT scans, the halo sign represents an area of low attenuation around the nodule, revealing edema or hemorrhage. The gold standard for the diagnosis is the culture identification of the fungus in sputum, BAL fluid or biopsy samples. Failing this identification, the detection of galactomannan, which is one of the fungal wall components, has shown sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 98%, respectively. Amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, caspofungin and, especially, voriconazole are effective against the fungus. Although Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia can be fatal, the incidence of this disease has decreased due to the prophylactic use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In immunocompromised patients presenting with dyspnea and hypoxemia, screening for fungi is indicated. A 14- to 21-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in combination with corticosteroids is usually efficacious. Another rare fungal infection is disseminated candidiasis, which is caused by Candida spp.

 


Keywords: Pneumonia; Immunosuppression; Lung diseases, fungal.

 


Comparison between azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Comparação entre a azitromicina e a amoxicilina no tratamento da exacerbação infecciosa da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Mara Rúbia Andre-Alves, José Roberto Jardim, Rodney Frare e Silva, Elie Fiss, Denison Noronha Freire, Paulo José Zimermann Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(1):43-50

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of azithromycin and amoxicillin in the treatment of patients with infectious exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: This study was conducted at six medical centers across Brazil and included 109 patients from 33 to 82 years of age. Of those, 102 were randomized to receive either azithromycin (500 mg/day for three days, n = 49) or amoxicillin (500 mg every eight hours for ten days, n = 53). The patients were evaluated at the study outset, on day ten, and at one month. Based on the clinical evaluation of the signs and symptoms present on day ten and at one month, the outcomes were classified as cure, improvement, or treatment failure. The microbiological evaluation was made through the culture of sputum samples that were considered appropriate samples only after leukocyte counts and Gram staining. Secondary efficacy evaluations were made in order to analyze symptoms (cough, dyspnea, and expectoration) and pulmonary function. Results: There were no differences between the groups treated with azithromycin or amoxicillin in terms of the percentages of cases in which the outcomes were classified as cure or improvement: 85% vs. 78% (p = 0.368) on day ten; and 83% vs. 78% (p = 0.571) at one month. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy variables or the incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Azithromycin and amoxicillin present similar efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

 


Keywords: Amoxicillin/therapeutic use; Azithromycin/therapeutic use; Bronchitis, chronic/drug therapy;

 


 

 


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