Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


Publication continuous and bimonthly

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Ultrasound evaluation of diaphragmatic mobility in different postures in healthy subjects

Avaliação ultra-sonográfica da mobilidade do diafragma em diferentes posturas em sujeitos saudáveis

Wellington Pereira dos Santos Yamaguti, Elaine Paulin, Simone Shibao, Sérgio Kodaira, Maria Cristina Chammas, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):407-413

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess, using ultrasound, the effects that changes in body position have on diaphragmatic mobility in healthy subjects during spontaneous breathing. Methods: The study involved seven healthy female volunteers, all of whom were nonsmokers, well nourished, and free of any cardiopulmonary disease. They were submitted to pulmonary function testing and ultrasound evaluation of the mobility of the right diaphragm by the craniocaudal displacement of the left branch of the portal vein using an ultrasound device in mode B. The mobility of the right diaphragm was evaluated in right decubitus and in left decubitus. The order of evaluation was previously determined in a random drawing. Results: The average mobility of the right diaphragm in right decubitus (51.30 ± 9.69 mm) was significantly higher (p = 0.03) than that observed in left decubitus (45.93 ± 10.37 mm). Conclusion: The results suggest that, during spontaneous ventilation, the dependent portion of the diaphragm presents greater mobility than does the nondependent portion, and that the technique used was sufficiently sensitive to detect variations in diaphragmatic mobility related to changes in posture.


Keywords: Diaphragm; Ultrasonography; Respiratory function tests; Posture.


Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients

Barreiras associadas à menor atividade física em portadores de DPOC

Priscila Batista Amorim, Rafael Stelmach, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Frederico Leon Arrabal Fernandes, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(5):504-512

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Objective: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. Methods: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. Results: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5  25.8 min/day vs. 105.2  49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9  1.9 km/day vs. 6.4  3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. Conclusions: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Activities of daily living; Exercise tolerance.


Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite long-distance runners in Brazil

Broncoespasmo induzido por exercício em corredores brasileiros de longa distância de elite

Renata Nakata Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo Teixeira, Luiz Augusto Riani Costa, Milton Arruda Martins, Timothy Derick Mickleborough, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):292-298

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction among elite long-distance runners in Brazil and whether there is a difference in the training loads among athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite long-distance runners with neither current asthma symptoms nor a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. All of the participants underwent eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea challenge and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests, as well as completing questionnaires regarding asthma symptoms and physical activity, in order to monitor their weekly training load. Results: Among the 86 male athletes recruited, participation in the study was agreed to by 20, of whom 5 (25%) were subsequently diagnosed with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. There were no differences between the athletes with and without exercise-induced bronchoconstriction regarding anthropometric characteristics, peak oxygen consumption, baseline pulmonary function values, or reported asthma symptoms. The weekly training load was significantly lower among those with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction than among those without. Conclusions: In this sample of long-distance runners in Brazil, the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was high.


Keywords: Athletes; Asthma, exercise-induced; Exercise test.


Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis

Efeitos de exercícios respiratórios de ioga na função pulmonar de pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne: uma análise exploratória

Marcos Rojo Rodrigues, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho, Danilo Forghieri Santaella, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Suely Kazue Nagahashi Marie

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):-

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Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. Methods: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. Results: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5  2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2  3.8 kg/m2). The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3  18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3  22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02) and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8  16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1  17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD.


Keywords: Respiratory therapy; Forced expiratory volume; Vital capacity; Muscular dystrophy, Duchenne; Complementary therapies.


Effects of a physical exercises program designed to increase thoracic mobility in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Efeitos de programa de exercícios físicos direcionado ao aumento da mobilidade torácica em pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Elaine Paulin, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):287-294

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is detrimental to lung mechanics and peripheral muscles. The physical programs developed for this condition are usually targeted to an improvement on aerobics capacity. Programs that approach specifically the changes in thoracic mobility and thoracic muscles are rare. Objective: To assess the effects of a physical exercise program designed to increase chest wall mobility on functional and psychosocial capacity in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Methods: Thirty patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were studied. They were randomized to 2 groups: control group (CG) and treated group (TG). The CG was submitted to an educational program and the TG was submitted to an educational program plus a physical exercise program aiming to increase chest wall mobility. Variables included spirometry, thoracic mobility, quality of life, anxiety and depression levels and a six minute walk test (6MWT). Results: After 2 months of training, only the TG presented improvements on chest wall mobility (from 4.20 ± 0.58 cm to 5.27 ± 0.58 cm; p = 0.05) and 6MWT (from 469.73 ± 31.99 m to 500.60 ± 27.38 m; p = 0.01). It was also observed that the TG presented improvement on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), and Beck's depression scale after 2 months of treatment. Pulmonary function did not improve either in the CG or in the TG group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that exercises aimed to the increasing of chest wall mobility improve thoracic mobility, quality of life, submaximal exercise capacity, and reduce dyspnea and depression symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.


Keywords: COPD. Thoracic mobility. Quality of life. Capacity of exercise. Dyspnea.


Six-minute walk test: necessary in order to understand patient limitations

Valores de referência: uma necessidade para compreendermos a limitação dos nossos pacientes

Celso Ricardo Fernandes Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):-

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