Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Peripheral muscle dysfunction in COPD: lower limbs versus upper limbs

Disfunção muscular periférica em DPOC: membros inferiores versus membros superiores

Eduardo Foschini Miranda, Carla Malaguti, Simone Dal Corso

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):380-388

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

O prejuízo funcional parece diferir entre membros superiores e membros inferiores de pacientes com DPOC. Dois possíveis mecanismos explicam os sintomas importantes de dispneia e fadiga relatados pelos pacientes ao executar tarefas com membros superiores não sustentados: a disfunção neuromecânica dos músculos respiratórios e a alteração dos volumes pulmonares durante as atividades realizadas com membros superiores. A disfunção neuromecânica está relacionada à alteração do padrão respiratório e à simultaneidade de estímulos aferentes e eferentes musculares, o que causaria a dissincronia na ação dos músculos respiratórios em pacientes com DPOC durante esse tipo de exercício. Adicionalmente, o aumento da ventilação durante os exercícios com membros superiores em pacientes com DPOC induz à hiperinsuflação dinâmica em diferentes cargas de trabalho. Nos membros inferiores, há redução da força e da endurance muscular do quadríceps femoral nos pacientes com DPOC comparados a indivíduos saudáveis. Uma explicação para essas reduções é a anormalidade no metabolismo muscular (diminuição da capacidade aeróbia), a dependência do metabolismo glicolítico e o acúmulo rápido de lactato durante o exercício. Quando contrastadas as atividades de membros superiores e membros inferiores, os exercícios com membros superiores resultam em maior demanda metabólica e ventilatória com mais intensa sensação de dispneia e fadiga. Devido às diferenças nas adaptações morfofuncionais dos músculos dos membros superiores e membros inferiores em pacientes com DPOC, protocolos específicos de treinamento de força e/ou endurance devem ser desenvolvidos e testados para os grupos musculares desses segmentos corporais.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle fatigue; Upper extremity; Lower extremity.

 


Methods for the assessment of peripheral muscle fatigue and its energy and metabolic determinants in COPD

Métodos de avaliação da fadigabilidade muscular periférica e seus determinantes energético-metabólicos na DPOC

Rafaella Rezende Rondelli, Simone Dal Corso, Alexandre Simões, Carla Malaguti

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1125-1135

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

It has been well established that, in addition to the pulmonary involvement, COPD has systemic consequences that can lead to peripheral muscle dysfunction, with greater muscle fatigue, lower exercise tolerance and lower survival in these patients. In view of the negative repercussions of early muscle fatigue in COPD, the objective of this review was to discuss the principal findings in the literature on the metabolic and bioenergy determinants of muscle fatigue, its functional repercussions, as well as the methods for its identification and quantification. The anatomical and functional substrate of higher muscle fatigue in COPD appears to include lower levels of high-energy phosphates, lower mitochondrial density, early lactacidemia, higher serum ammonia and reduced muscle perfusion. These alterations can be revealed by contraction failure, decreased firing rates of motor units and increased recruitment of motor units in a given activity, which can be functionally detected by a reduction in muscle strength, power and endurance. This review article also shows that various types of muscle contraction regimens and protocols have been used in order to detect muscle fatigue in this population. With this understanding, rehabilitation strategies can be developed in order to improve the resistance to muscle fatigue in this population.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Neuromuscular manifestations; Muscle fatigue; Exercise tolerance; Energy metabolism; Evaluation.

 


New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Débora Strose Villaça, Maria Cristina Lerario, Simone Dal Corso, José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):66-77

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the fact that these drugs can avert or minimize catabolism and stimulate protein synthesis, thereby reducing the loss of muscle mass and increasing exercise tolerance. This review summarizes the available data regarding the use of anabolic steroids, creatine, L-carnitine, branched-chain amino acids and growth hormones in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The advantage of using these ergogenic aids appears to lie in increasing lean muscle mass and inducing bioenergetic modifications. Within this context, most of the data collected deals with anabolic steroids. However, to date, the clinical benefits in terms of increased exercise tolerance and muscle strength, as well as in terms of the effect on morbidity and mortality, have not been consistently demonstrated. Dietary supplementation with substances of ergogenic potential might prove to be a valid adjuvant therapy for treating patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, especially those presenting loss of muscle mass or peripheral muscle weakness.

 


Keywords: Lung diseases, obstructive; Respiratory muscle; Dietary supplements; Anabolic agents/therapeutic use; Exercício; Energy metabolism

 


The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease

O uso de testes do degrau para a avaliação da capacidade de exercício em indivíduos saudáveis e pacientes com doenças pulmonares crônicas

Carlos Henrique Silva de Andrade, Reinaldo Giovanini Cianci, Carla Malaguti, Simone Dal Corso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):116-124

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Step tests are typically used to assess exercise capacity. Given the diversity of step tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min), but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm) and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min) remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm), pacing (self-paced or externally paced), and test duration (90 s-10 min). However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Cystic fibrosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Exercise tolerance; Exercise test.

 


 

 


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