Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital

Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário

Sabrina Bollmann Garcia, Christiano Perin, Marcel Muller da Silveira, Gustavo Vergani, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1092-1099

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy carried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. Results: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9%) presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture). In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6) and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6) showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1%) confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. Conclusions: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9%) was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis; Sputum.

 


Effects of salbutamol delivered by dry-powder inhaler on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction

Efeito do salbutamol liberado através de inalador de pó seco sobre o broncoespasmo induzido por metacolina

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Liliana G Pelegrin,Christiano Perin, Maurício Roux Leite, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(3):195-200

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Short-acting b2 agonists delivered by metered-dose inhaler (MDIs) are the drugs usually used for the reversal of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The b2 agonists that are delivered by dry-powder inhaler (DPI) can be an efficacious option. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and speed of action of salbutamol delivered by DPI (Pulvinal; Butoventâ), in comparison to salbutamol delivered by MDI, in reversing methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Method: Sixty successive methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction patients who presented a decrease of at least 20% in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) were evaluated prospectively. Of these 60 patients, we randomized 30 (first group) to receive 200 mcg of salbutamol by MDI and 30 (second group) to receive 200 mcg of salbutamol by DPI (Pulvinal). Both drugs were administered with the objective of reversing bronchoconstriction during the final phase of a bronchoprovocation test. The FEV1 values obtained at 1 and 5 minutes after bronchodilator administration were evaluated. Results: The groups were comparable in gender distribution, age, weight, dose level provoking a 20% drop in FEV1 (first group: 1.3 mg; second group: 1.19 mg; p = 0.79) and post-methacholine FEV1 (first group: 2.03 l; second group: 1.99 l; p = 0.87), with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the first group (MDI), the mean increase in FEV1 was 16.2% (at 1 minute) and 22.2% (at 5 minutes), and in the second group (DPI) it was 17% (at 1 minute) and 23.6% (at 5 minutes). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.8). Conclusion: The b2-agonists delivered by DPI (Pulvinal) present the same bronchodilator efficacy and speed of action as do those delivered by the more traditional MDI method.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Bronchodilator agents/administration & dosage. Albuterol/administration & dosage. Methacholine chloride/administration & dosage. Respiratory therapy/methods. Administration, inhalation/methods. Prospective studies.

 


Efficacy of inhaled formoterol in reversing bronchoconstriction

Eficácia do formoterol na reversão imediata do broncoespasmo

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Christiano Perin, Liliana Pelegrin, Juliana Cardozo Fernandes, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):202-206

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and onset of action of formoterol delivered by dry-powder inhaler in reversing methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods: Patients presenting a drop in forced expiratory volume in one second > 20% after methacholine inhalation were included. A total of 84 patients were evaluated. All of the participating patients presented respiratory symptoms of unknown origin, which were being investigated. The patients were randomized to receive 200 µg of spray fenoterol (n = 41) or 12 µg of dry-powder inhaler formoterol (n = 43), both administered in order to achieve immediate reversal of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. We evaluated the decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (in relation to the baseline value) after methacholine challenge and the dose of methacholine required to provoke a drop of 20% in forced expiratory volume in one second, as well as the increase in forced expiratory volume in one second (in relation to the baseline value) at five and ten minutes after bronchodilator use. Results: There were no significant differences related to gender, age, weight, height or dose of methacholine required to provoke a drop of 20% in forced expiratory volume in one second. Nor were there any significant differences in terms of baseline or post-methacholine forced expiratory volume in one second. In the fenoterol group, the mean postbronchodilator increase in forced expiratory volume in one second increase was 34% (at five minutes) and 50.1% (at ten minutes), compared with 46.5% (at five minutes) and 53.2% (at ten minutes) in the formoterol group. Conclusion: The bronchodilator effect of formoterol at five and ten minutes after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction was similar to that of fenoterol. Despite being a long-acting bronchodilator, formoterol also has a rapid onset of action, which suggests that it could be employed as a relief medication in cases of bronchoconstriction occurring during asthma attacks.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Formoterol; Fenoterol; Inhalation therapy; Bronchodilation, Methacoline

 


Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

Mortalidade por fibrose pulmonar idiopática no Rio Grande do Sul

Fabrício Picolli Fortuna, Christiano Perin, Letícia Cunha, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(3):121-124

Abstract PDF PT

Epidemiologic data on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are relatively scarce, and its real incidence and prevalence are unknown. Recent studies suggest that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis mortality is rising in developed countries. Objectives: To describe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis mortality in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, from 1970 to 2000, analyzing its trend and comparing it with that from other countries. Methods: Prevalence study, using data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), analyzing death certificates in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was stated as ultimate cause of death. Results: Annual mortality adjusted to population was 0.22/100,000 persons in the 1970's, 0.3/100,000 persons in the 1980's, and 0.48/100,000 persons in the 1990's. Total mortality rised 36% from 1970 to 1980, and 70% from 1980 to 1990. Mortality adjusted to population rised 36% and 60% during the same periods. The rise in both total and adjusted mortality from IPF was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean mortality rate per 100,000 persons during 1996 to 1998, however, was 0.683, corresponding to a rise of 70% when compared to the previous three-year period, which was 0.4 (p = 0.0002), probably reflecting encoding practices. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in IPF mortality in RS from 1970 to 2000, in part due to changes in coding practices. This increase is in conformity with observations in other countries, althought mortality rates in RS are considerably lower.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis. Mortality.

 


Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

Pneumonia eosinofílica crônica

Alessandra Isabel Zille, Christiano Perin, Geraldo Resin Geyer, Jorge Lima Hetzel, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):281-284

Abstract PDF PT

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare disease of unknown cause characterized by eosinophilic alveolar and interstitial infiltration. The authors describe the case of a 49-year-old caucasian woman, presenting dyspnea on minimum effort, with insidious beginning and progressive course in the last six months. The main findings were serum eosinophilia and in the sputum, chest radiographs showing multifocal infiltrations of irregular distribution in both lungs and a restrictive functional impairment. The patient was submitted to an open lung biopsy, which demonstrated a chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. There was a dramatic clinical, radiological, and functional response after corticosteroid therapy.

 



 

 


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