Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Epidemiological aspects of pleural tuberculosis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1998-2005)

Aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose pleural no estado de São Paulo (1998-2005)

Márcia Seiscento, Francisco Suso Vargas, Maria Josefa Penon Rujula, Sidney Bombarda, David Everson Uip, Vera Maria Nedes Galesi

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):548-554

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of and trends regarding the incidence of pleural TB. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of TB cases reported between 1998 and 2005 and compiled from the Epidemiological Surveillance Tuberculosis System (Epi-TB database). Results: A total of 144,347 new cases of TB were reported during the period studied. Pulmonary TB was the predominant form (118,575 cases; 82.2%). Among the extrapulmonary forms (25,773 cases; 17.8%), pleural TB was the form most often reported (12,545 cases; 48.7%). For all forms, the incidence (per 100,000 population) decreased (from 49.7 in 1998 to 44.6 in 2005; R2 = 0.898; p < 0.001), whereas the incidence of pleural TB remained stable (4.1 in 1998 and 3.8 in 2005; R2 = 0.433; p = 0.076). The highest incidence of pleural TB was found among males (2:1) aged from 30 to 59 years. Of the 12,545 patients with pleural TB, 4,018 (32.0%) presented comorbidities: alcoholism (9.5%); HIV (8.0%); diabetes (3.3%); and mental illness (1.2%). The diagnosis was based on bacteriological (14.2%) and histological (30.2%) methods, as well as on unspecified methods (55.6%). Conclusions: Pleural TB was the predominant extrapulmonary form of TB in the state of São Paulo, with a stable incidence between 1998 and 2005, although there was a trend toward a decrease in the incidence of the pulmonary forms. The diagnosis of pleural TB was confirmed through histology and bacteriology in 44.4% of the cases.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis, pleural; HIV.

 


Differentiating between tuberculosis-related and lymphoma&#8209;related lymphocytic pleural effusions by measuring clinical and laboratory variables: Is it possible?

É possível diferenciar derrames pleurais linfocíticos secundários a tuberculose ou linfoma através de variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais?

Leila Antonangelo, Francisco Suso Vargas, Eduardo Henrique Genofre, Caroline Maris Neves de Oliveira, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Roberta Karla Barbosa de Sales

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):181-187

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe clinical and laboratory characteristics in patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic pleural effusions, in order to identify the variables that might contribute to differentiating between these diseases. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 159 adult HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis-related or lymphoma-related lymphocytic effusions (130 and 29 patients, respectively), treated between October of 2008 and March of 2010 at the Pleural Diseases Outpatient Clinic of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas Heart Institute, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Results: Mean age and the mean duration of symptoms were lower in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group. The levels of proteins, albumin, cholesterol, amylase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural fluid, as well as the serum levels of proteins, albumin, and amylase, were higher in the tuberculosis group, whereas serum cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in the lymphoma group. Pleural fluid leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were higher in the tuberculosis group. Of the tuberculosis group patients, none showed malignant cells; however, 4 showed atypical lymphocytes. Among the lymphoma group patients, cytology for neoplastic cells was positive, suspicious, and negative in 51.8%, 24.1%, and 24.1%, respectively. Immunophenotyping of pleural fluid was conclusive in most of the lymphoma patients. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate clinical and laboratory similarities among the patients with tuberculosis or lymphoma. Although protein and ADA levels in pleural fluid tended to be higher in the tuberculosis group than in the lymphoma group, even these variables showed an overlap. However, none of the tuberculosis group patients had pleural fluid ADA levels below the 40-U/L cut-off point.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis; Lymphoma; Adenosine deaminase; Diagnosis, differential.

 


Malignant pleural mesothelioma: multidisciplinary experience in a public tertiary hospital

Mesotelioma pleural maligno: experiência multidisciplinar em hospital público terciário

Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira, Ricardo Beyruti, Teresa Yae Takagaki, Francisco Suso Vargas, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(1):12-20

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the experience in diagnosing and treating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) accumulated over 5 years in a tertiary public hospital. Methods: The medical charts of the patients diagnosed with MPM between January of 2000 and February of 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Of the 17 patients analyzed, 14 were male and 3 were female. The mean age was 54.1 years (range, 13-75 years). The biopsy specimens for histopathological examination were obtained through thoracoscopy in 9 patients (53%), Cope needle in 5 (29.5%), and open pleural biopsy in 3 (17.5%). The following histological types were identified: epithelial, in 14 patients (82%); sarcomatoid, in 1 (6%); and biphasic, in 2 (12%). The therapeutic approaches used were as follows: multimodal (pleuropneumonectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy) in 6 patients (35%); chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 6 (35%); radiotherapy alone in 3 (17.5%); and chemotherapy alone in 2 (12%). The mean survival was 11 months (range, 1-26 months). Conclusions: In the cases studied, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was used, and a highly complex hospital infrastructure was available for the diagnosis and treatment of MPM, as recommended in the literature. However, the mean survival was only 11 months, reflecting the aggressiveness of the disease.

 


Keywords: Mesothelioma; Pleura; Surgery; Diagnosis.

 


Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: Um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central

Pleurodese nos derrames pleurais malignos: Um inquérito entre médicos em países da América do Sul e Central

Evaldo Marchi, Francisco Suso Vargas, Bruna Affonso Madaloso, Marcus Vinicius Carvalho, Ricardo Mingarini Terra, Lisete Ribeiro Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):759-767

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Pleurodesis is an effective alternative for the control of malignant pleural effusions. However, there is as yet no consensus regarding the indications for the procedure and the techniques employed therein. The objective of this study was to evaluate how pleurodesis is performed in South and Central America. Methods: Professionals who perform pleurodesis completed a questionnaire regarding the indications for the procedure, the techniques used therein, and the outcomes obtained. Results: Our sample comprised 147 respondents in Brazil, 49 in other South American countries, and 36 in Central America. More than 50% of the respondents reported performing pleurodesis only if pleural malignancy had been confirmed. However, scores on dyspnea and performance status scales were rarely used as indications for the procedure. Nearly 75% of the respondents in Brazil and in Central America preferred to perform pleurodesis only for recurrent effusions and stated that lung expansion should be 90-100%. Talc slurry, instilled via medium-sized chest tubes, was the agent most often employed. Thoracoscopy was performed in less than 25% of cases. Fever and chest pain were the most common side effects, and empyema occurred in ≤ 14% of cases. The mean survival time after the procedure was most often reported to be 6-12 months. Conclusions: There was considerable variation among the countries evaluated in terms of the indications for pleurodesis, techniques used, and outcomes. Talc slurry is the agent most commonly used, and thoracoscopy is the technique of choice in Brazil. Pleurodesis is an effective procedure that has few side effects, as evidenced by the low complication rates and high survival times.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant; Pleura; Pleurodesis.

 


Pleurodesis: technique and indications

Pleurodese: técnica e indicações

Marcelo Costa Vaz, Evalo Marchi, Francisco Suso Vargas

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):347-356

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Recurrent pleural effusion, which is commonly seen in clinical practice, compromises patient quality of life, especially in patients with advanced malignant disease. The therapeutic approach to the pleural space involves a wide range of techniques, including aggressive procedures such as pleurectomy. Among such techniques, pleurodesis is the most frequently used. Pleurodesis can be induced through the insertion of pleural catheters, as well as through major surgical procedures (such as thoracotomy). There are various recommended sclerosing agents, including talc (which is the most widely used), silver nitrate and, recently, proliferative cytokines. This article summarizes the principal approaches to the treatment of recurrent pleural effusion, pleurodesis in particular, addressing the indications for, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of, their application in daily pulmonology practice.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion, malignant/prevention & control; Pleural neoplasms; Pleura/surgery; Pleurodesis/methods; Silver nitrate; Talc; Recurrence

 


 

 


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