Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Acute asthma in adults in the emergency room: clinical management in the first hour

Asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: o manejo clínico na primeira hora

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Alan Castoldi Medeiros, Marcelo Kurz Siqueira, Felipe Mallmann, Mariane Lacerda, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(6):297-306

Abstract PDF PT

Asthma is a disease with high prevalence in our country and around the world. Although new therapeutic approaches have been recently developed, there appears to be a worldwide increase in morbidity and mortality from asthma. In many institutions, asthma exacerbation is still a common medical emergency. Clinical evidence demonstrates that the first hour of management of acute asthma in the emergency room entails crucial decisions that could be determinant in the clinical outcome. In this non-systematic review, the authors focus on the first hour assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma and outline an appropriate strategy for their management. Diagnosis, severity assessment, pharmacological treatment, complications, and the decision regarding the place where additional treatment will take place will be considered. It is reasonable to expect that these recommendations will help physicians make appropriate decisions about the first hour care of acute asthma in the emergency room.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Emergency medicine. Emergency treatment. Clinical procedures. Emergency medical services.

 


Asthma: a great challenge

Asma: um grande desafio

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):277-277

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Assessment of exercise capacity in pulmonary hypertension

Avaliação da capacidade de exercício na hipertensão pulmonar

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):401-403

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Early prognosis of acute asthma in the emergency room

Avaliação prognóstica precoce da asma aguda na sala de emergência

Deise Marcela Piovesan, Diego Milan Menegotto, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristine Hoffmann, Lílian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):1-9

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate clinical and pulmonary function measurements taken in the first fifteen minutes of the assessment of acute asthma in the emergency room and used for prognostic purposes. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving consecutive patients with acute asthma. Only patients who were between the ages of 12 and 55 and presented peak expiratory flow rates < or = 50% of predicted were included. Evaluations were performed upon admission, then again at 15 minutes and 4 hours after the initiation of treatment. Treatment included albuterol and ipratropium delivered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, together with 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone. Favorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow > or = 50% of predicted after 4 hours of treatment, and unfavorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow < 50% after 4 hours of treatment. Results: Favorable outcomes were seen in 27 patients, and unfavorable outcomes were seen in 24 patients. In the multivariate analysis, peak expiratory flow as percentage of predicted was identified as the variable with the highest predictive value. A peak expiratory flow > or = 40% after 15 minutes of treatment showed significant power in predicting a favorable outcome (sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 1.00, and positive predictive value = 1.00). A peak expiratory flow < 30% after 15 minutes of treatment was predictive of a poor outcome (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.93, and positive predictive value = 0.87). Conclusion: Our results suggest that measuring peak expiratory flow after 15 minutes of management in the emergency room is a useful tool for predicting outcomes in cases of acute asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Acute disease; Respiratory mechanics; Prognosis; Emergency Service, Hospital; Cohort studies

 


Semiquantitative echocardiographic evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations: correlation with evaluation of shunt levels and pulmonary function parameters

Avaliação semiquantitativa ecocardiográfica de dilatações vasculares intrapulmonares em candidatos a transplante hepático: correlação com avaliação de shunt e parâmetros funcionais pulmonares

Maria Angélica Pires Ferreira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst, Mario Reis Álvares da Silva, Antonio Furlan Pinotti

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):106-113

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To correlate semiquantitative evaluation of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVD) with quantitative evaluation of shunt levels, as well as to describe clinical and pulmonary function findings in a sample of liver disease patients with IPVD. Methods: Patients presenting transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) positivity for IPVD underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests and pulmonary shunt quantification (scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin and blood gas analysis after pure oxygen breathing). Results: A total of 28 liver cirrhosis patients were studied (mean age, 47.5 years; 60.7% were Child-Pugh class B). A 4-point, ascending scale was used as a measure of IPVD intensity, which was scored as 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, in 13 (46.4%), 9 (32.1%), 2 (7.1%) and 4 (14.3%) of the patients. Patients were divided into a low-intensity group (scores 1 and 2) and a high-intensity group (scores 3 and 4). The mean shunt assessed using scintigraphy was 14.9% in the sample as a whole and was lower in the low-intensity group (11.7% vs. 26.3%; p = 0.01). The mean shunt by blood gas analysis was higher in the high-intensity group (8.3% vs. 16.3%; p < 0.001). Mean PaO2 was lower in the high-intensity group. There was a negative correlation between DLCO and IPVD severity (r = −0.406, p = 0.01). Conclusions: TTE is a safe, useful tool for assessing IPVD severity in liver disease patients. The IPVD intensity assessed using TTE correlated with the intrapulmonary shunt values obtained through the quantitative methods evaluated, as well as with pulmonary gas exchange abnormalities.

 


Keywords: Anoxia; Liver cirrhosis; Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Echocardiography.

 


Poor perception of dyspnea following methacholine challenge test in patients with asthma

Baixo grau de percepção da dispneia após teste de broncoprovocação induzida por metacolina em pacientes com asma

Cláudia Loss Reck, Daniel Fiterman-Molinari, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):539-544

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the proportion of asthma patients with a poor perception of dyspnea, correlating the level of that perception with the severity of acute bronchoconstriction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, use of maintenance medication, and asthma control. Methods: Uncontrolled clinical trial involving asthma patients treated at the Pulmonology Outpatient Clinic of the São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methacholine challenge testing was performed using a five-breath dosimeter protocol. The perception of dyspnea after each breath was determined using the Borg scale. Data concerning asthma control, medication in use, and use of rescue short-acting bronchodilators were recorded. Results: Of the 65 patients included in the study, 53 completed the evaluation. Of those, 32 (60.5%) showed adequate perception of dyspnea after the methacholine challenge test, whereas 21 (39.5%) did not perceive any changes in the degree of dyspnea even after a 20% fall in FEV1. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding baseline FEV1, percentage fall in FEV1, and the dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1. The perception of dyspnea was not significantly associated with age (p = 0.247); gender (p = 0.329); use of maintenance medication (p = 0.152); asthma control (p = 0.562), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (p = 0.082); or severity of acute bronchoconstriction (p = 0.749). Conclusions: A significant proportion of asthma patients have a poor perception of dyspnea. The factors related to the inability of these patients to identify changes in pulmonary function have not yet been well defined. In order to reduce asthma-related morbidity and mortality, it is essential that this group of patients be identified and counseled.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Dyspnea; Airway obstruction.

 


Bom para alguns, ótimo para outros

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):251-

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Exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of asthma

Broncoespasmo induzido pelo exercício em crianças e adolescentes com diagnóstico de asma

Vitor E. Cassol, Maria E. Trevisna, Eliane Z. C. de Moraes, Luiz O. C. Portela, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):102-108

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: In asthmatic children and adolescents a high incidence of temporary bronchospasm is perceived after physical exertion. Objective: To investigate incidence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe asthma. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional, not controlled study was carried out. The sample encompassed follow-up of 40 asthmatic patients of both genders, between 7 and 18 years of age who were not regularly using anti-inflammatory medication. A standardized exercise provocation test that consisted of steady running on a treadmill with a 10% inclination was administered Pulmonary function was tested with forced spirometry using six expiratory maneuvers repeated at approximately 1, 5 ,10,15, 20 and 30 minutes after the exercise. The highest of six FEV1 readings was used for analysis. The FEV1 was employed to evaluate the presence and to classify the severity of positive exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB). The asthmatic patients presented adequate clinical and spirometric conditions for testing (FEV1 at least 70 % of the predicted value). A drop of ³ 10% in relation to FEV1 before exercise was adopted as a criterion for (EIB). Results: 26 (65 %) patients developed EIB. The proportion by category was: mild asthma 44%, moderate and severe asthma 100%. There was a significant association between proportion of EIB and severity of asthma (p<0.05), and a significant difference between severity of EIB (confirmed by a recorded decrease in the 1 second forced expiratory volume) and asthma severity (p<0.05). Conclusion: The proportion and severity of EIB were clearly related to the clinical severity of asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma, exercise-induced/diagnosis. Children. Adolescent. Spirometry/methods.

 


Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of contagious adult of tuberculosis in children

Características clínicas e epidemiológicas do adulto contagiante da criança com tuberculose

João Ab Lima, Edgar Enrique Sarria Icaza, Beatriz G. Menegotto, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(3):243-252

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Tuberculosis in children generally occurs as a direct result of cohabitation with a contagious adult. Objective: To create a profile of a typical adult with contagious tuberculosis (as identified through the public health system) living with a child who has been diagnosed with tuberculosis. Method: Case study. Children younger than 14 years of age who were diagnosed with tuberculosis were included. Parents were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Means and standard deviations were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Fisher's exact test or the Dz test was used for comparisons. Results: Fifty children, representing 96% of those diagnosed with tuberculosis in the Porto Alegre health care system between July 20, 2001 and August 10, 2002, were included. The mean age was 76 months, and 60% were girls. The classic forms of pulmonary presentation (consolidation or cavitation) were seen in 38%. The majority of the children were diagnosed in the hospital and came from homes in which there were (a mean of) 6 cohabitants and a total family income less than 2 times the local minimum wage. Using ELISA, HIV co-infection was identified in 25% (although not all were tested). The children regularly visited places other than their homes. In 78% of cases, the contagious adult was identified. These contagious adults were mostly males (56%), and the mean age was 32. In most cases (79%), the contagious adult was a relative, usually a parent. Within this group of adults with contagious tuberculosis, HIV co-infection was identified in 43% of those tested. Conclusions: Adults with contagious tuberculosis living in the home continue to be the most likely source of tuberculosis infection in children. Co-infection with HIV in these pediatric patients, as well as in the cohabiting adults with contagious tuberculosis, is a significant finding. It must be emphasized that the possibility of contact with contagious individuals in the home should be explored in every diagnosed case of pediatric tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology. Children. Communicable diseases/etiology.

 


Six-minute walk distance is not related to quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos não se relaciona com qualidade de vida em pacientes com bronquiectasias não fibrocísticas

Patrícia Santos Jacques, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Dora Veronisi Palombini, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):346-355

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Objective: To evaluate physical performance on the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and to investigate its relationship with quality of life (QoL). To identify predictors of exercise performance, we also investigated whether six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is associated with clinical and spirometric findings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (age,  18 years), with at least one respiratory symptom for  2 years and an FEV1  70% of predicted. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, the 6MWT, and QoL assessment with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: We included 70 patients (48 females). Mean age was 54.5 ± 17.7 years, and mean FEV1 was 44.9 ± 14.5% of predicted. The patients were divided into two groups: 6MWD-low (6MWD below the predicted lower limit; n = 23); and 6MWD-norm (normal 6MWD; n = 47). The following variables were significantly lower in the 6MWD-low group than in the 6MWD-norm group: age; age at diagnosis of bronchiectasis; proportion of former smokers; body mass index (BMI); FEV1% of predicted; and MEP% of predicted. There were no significant differences in the SF-36 scores between the groups. In the logistic regression model, lower age and lower BMI were significantly associated with lower 6MWD. Conclusions: In this sample, there was a high proportion of patients who had a lower than expected 6MWD. Although 6MWD was not related to QoL, it was associated with age and BMI.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 


Effect of a clinical protocol on the management of acute asthma in the emergency room of a university hospital

Efeito da implantação de um protocolo assistencial de asma aguda no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário

Pérsio Mariano da Rocha, Andréia Kist Fernandes, Fernando Nogueira, Deise Marcela Piovesan, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristina Hoffmann, Carísi Anne Polanczyk, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):94-101

Abstract PDF PT

Background: There is a wide variability in clinical practice for treating acute asthma (AA) in the emergency room (ER) interfering in the quality of management. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a clinical protocol for care of acute asthma in the ER of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Method: In this hospital a cross-sectional study was conducted before and after implementation of the protocol, of consecutive patients presenting with acute asthma in the adult ER (age ³ 12 years). The intention was to measure the effect of recommendations on the objective assessment of severity, utilization of diagnostic tools, proposed therapy, not recommended therapy and on the outcomes. Results: The pre-protocol group comprised 108 patients and the protocol group comprised 96 patients. There was a significant increase in the use of pulse oximetry (8% to 77%, p<0.001) and PEFR (5% to 21%, p<0.001). There was an increase in the utilization of radiology (33% to 66%, p<0.001) and in that of blood tests (11% to 25%, p=0.016). There was also an increase in the number of patients receiving the three recommended nebulizations in the first hour (22% to 36%, p=0.04). Although the overall use of corticosteroids did not change, there was a significant increase in the use of oral steroids (8% to 28%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the not recommended therapy, time of stay and outcomes. Conclusion: The acute asthma clinical protocol used in the ER was associated to a positive effect on the objective assessment of severity of asthma and on the use of the recommended therapy. No other significant influence on the treatment or on the outcome was perceived.

 


Keywords: Clinical protocols. Asthma. Emergency medicine.

 


Bronchodilator effect on maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease

Efeito do broncodilatador no tempo de apneia voluntária máxima em pacientes com distúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos

Raqueli Biscayno Viecili, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Denise Rossato Silva, Danton Pereira da Silva, André Frota Muller, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(6):745-751

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify the role of bronchodilators in the maximal breath-hold time in patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD). Methods: We conducted a case-control study including patients with OLD and a control group. Spirometric tests were performed prior to and after the use of a bronchodilator, as were breath-hold tests, using an electronic microprocessor and a pneumotachograph as a flow transducer. Respiratory flow curves were displayed in real time on a portable computer. The maximal breath-hold times at end-inspiratory volume and at end-expiratory volume (BHTmaxVEI and BHTmaxVEE, respectively) were determined from the acquired signal. Results: A total of 35 patients with OLD and 16 controls were included. Prior to the use of a bronchodilator, the BHTmaxVEI was significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group (22.27 ± 11.81 s vs. 31.45 ± 15.73 s; p = 0.025), although there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the post-bronchodilator values (24.94 ± 12.89 s vs. 31.67 ± 17.53 s). In contrast, BHTmaxVEE values were significantly lower in the OLD group than in the control group, in the pre- and post-bronchodilator tests (16.88 ± 6.58 s vs. 22.09 ± 7.95 s; p = 0.017; and 21.22 ± 9.37 s vs. 28.53 ± 12.46 s; p = 0.024, respectively). Conclusions: Our results provide additional evidence of the clinical usefulness of the breath-hold test in the assessment of pulmonary function and add to the existing knowledge regarding the role of the bronchodilator in this test.

 


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Bronchodilator agents; Apnea.

 


Classification of risk and prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in university hospital patients

Estratificação de risco e profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em pacientes internados em hospital geral universitário

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Carlo Sasso Faccin, Paula Mallman da Silva, Larissa Pretto Centeno, Marcelo Basso Gazzana

J Bras Pneumol.1998;24(5):299-302

Abstract PDF PT

Objectives: To identify the frequency of risk factors, classification of degree of risk and the practice of prophylaxis to venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a general hospital. Methods: Randomly selected cases were included. Patients were excluded if they were on anticoagulant treatment. Determination of risk factors and classification of degree of risk were done according to international consensus. Results: Most patients (96%) had at least one recognized risk factor, 81% of them fulfilled the criteria to be classified as moderate/high risk. Prophylactic measures were prescribed to 221 (63%) patients. There was a significant association between the higher risk level for VTE and increased use of heparin (p < 0.001). Contraindications to the use of heparin were noticed in 7% of the cases. Conclusion: Risk factors for VTE are usually seen and prophylaxis is unsatisfactory. Contraindications to the use of heparin are uncommon; prophylaxis should be considered for a higher number of patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism. Deep venous thrombosis. Prevention.

 


Predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life in patients with interstitial lung disease: a multifactorial analysis

Fatores preditores da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde física e mental em pacientes com doença pulmonar intersticial: uma análise multifatorial

Ana Cláudia Coelho, Marli Maria Knorst, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(5):562-570

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 63 patients, all of whom underwent lung function testing and the six-minute walk test. The following instruments were used: the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Survey (SF-36), the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale. Principal component analysis was used in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data, thereby identifying the predictor variables, and multiple linear regression analysis was used in order to identify the explanatory variables. Results: Of the 63 patients, 34 were female. The mean age was 60.1 ± 13.3 years, the mean FVC was 64.17 ± 15.54% of predicted, and the mean DLCO was 44.21 ± 14.47% of predicted. All of the patients evaluated had impaired HRQoL, scoring worst for the SF-36 physical functioning and SGRQ activity domains. Of the patients evaluated, 60.3% and 57.1% showed symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. The principal component analysis identified one predictor of physical HRQoL and one predictor of mental HRQoL. Depression had a strong influence on the predictor of mental HRQoL, and the degree of dyspnea had a strong influence on both predictors of HRQoL in the patients evaluated. Variables related to lung function, exercise capacity, and anxiety had no impact on these predictors. Conclusions: In our sample of patients with ILD, the degree of dyspnea had a major impact on the physical and mental HRQoL, and depression had an impact on mental HRQoL.

 


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Dyspnea; Lung diseases, interstitial; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests.

 


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema in smokers

Fibrose pulmonar idiopática simultânea a enfisema em pacientes tabagistas

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(10):779-786

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the clinical and functional findings recently reported in the medical literature for patients diagnosed with emphysema involving the upper lobes and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) involving the lower lobes. Methods: Eleven patients with emphysema and IPF were identified retrospectively. All of the patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography of the lung and pulmonary function tests. Results: Of the 11 patients, 8 were male and 3 were female. The mean age was 70.7 ± 7.2 years (range, 61-86 years). All of the patients were smokers (mean smoking history, 61.5 ± 43.5 pack-years). The mean values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 72.1 ± 12.7%, 68.2 ± 11.9% and 74.4 ± 10.8, respectively. Lung volumes were normal in 7 patients. A restrictive pattern was observed in 3 patients, and hyperinflation was present in one. The diffusing capacity was moderatelyto- severely reduced in all of the patients (mean, 27.7% ± 12.9% of predicted). Ten of the 11 patients performed the six-minute walk test. The mean distance covered was 358.4 ± 143.1 m, and 9 of the 10 patients presented desaturation ≥ 4%. Echocardiographic findings suggestive of pulmonary hypertension were present in 4 patients (mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure, 61.8 mmHg; range, 36-84 mmHg). Conclusions: The concomitant presence of emphysema and IPF causes characteristic changes on pulmonary function tests. The most significant finding is a discrepancy between diffusing capacity and spirometry results.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Pulmonary fibrosis; Lung Diseases, interstitial; Anoxia; Hypertension, pulmonary.

 


Pulmonary arterial hypertension and thyroid disease

Hipertensão arterial pulmonar e doenças da tireoide

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Ângela Beatriz John, Débora Rodrigues Siqueira, Ana Luiza Silva Maia, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):179-185

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Recent studies have suggested an association between pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and thyroid diseases (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism). This combination has a good prognosis, because the increase in the pulmonary artery pressure is usually slight and reverses after the treatment of the thyroid disease. Although the exact mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of this combination has not yet been established, it has been hypothesized that thyroid hormones and autoimmunity have a direct influence. Due to the high prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with PAH, thyroid function tests should be considered in the investigation of every patient with PAH. In this review, we describe the prevalence of PAH in patients with thyroid diseases and the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with PAH, as well as addressing the principal effects that thyroid diseases have on the respiratory system. In addition, we report the treatment effects in patients with these diseases.

 


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Graves disease; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Thyroid hormones; Echocardiography.

 


Pulmonary hypertension: a report of six cases and updating review

Hipertensão pulmonar: relato de seis casos e atualização do tema

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marcelo Basso Gazzana

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(6):321-336

Abstract PDF PT

Pulmonary hypertension occurs when the pressure of the pulmonary artery is disproportionally high for a certain level of pulmonary blood flow. Values of mean pulmonary artery pressure of more than 25 mm Hg at rest or 30 mm Hg during exercise allow the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Sustained or chronic pulmonary hypertension may be secondary to known diseases, mainly to those of cardiac or pulmonary nature, or may be a primary abnormality of the pulmonary circulation, with or without identification of associated conditions. Advances in the knowledge of the mechanisms of vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling have brought better prospects for the treatment of the disease. The correct use of vasodilators and anticoagulants, the new vasodilators, as epoprostenol and its analogs, and surgical techniques have increased the survival of many patients. Pneumologists can view cases of pulmonary hypertension as complications of pulmonary diseases or as a result of dyspnea investigation. Despite its etiology, pulmonary hypertension represents a clear abnormality that affects the right ventricle and can be potentially fatal to patients. Image methods have made the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension more accessible and non-invasive. Six cases of patients with pulmonary hypertension of different causes are presented and discussed. In conclusion, according to new concepts, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension is no longer an irreversible condition, and the identification of associated conditions with potential treatments can be favorable in the management of the patients with pulmonary hypertension.

 


Keywords: pulmonary hypertension, vascular resistance, lung diseases, vasodilator agents

 


Chronic bacterial infection and echocardiographic parameters indicative of pulmonary hypertension in patients with cystic fibrosis

Infecção bacteriana crônica e indicadores ecocardiográficos de hipertensão pulmonar em pacientes com fibrose cística

Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Bruna Ziegler, Lilian Rech Pasin, Antônio Fernando Furlan Pinotti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):461-467

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objectives: To examine the relationship between chronic bacterial infection and pulmonary hypertension, using Doppler echocardiography, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving CF patients (≥ 16 years of age) admitted to a program for adults with the disease. The study included 40 patients with a mean age of 23.7 ± 6.3 years. Patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays and sputum cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Results: In terms of the following variables, no significant differences were found between P. aeruginosapositive patients and P. aeruginosa-negative patients: clinical score (p = 0.472); forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; p = 0.693); radiological score (p = 0.760); tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV, p = 0.330); diameter of the right ventricle (DRV, p = 0.191); and right ventricular/pulmonary artery (RV/PA) systolic acceleration time (SAT, p = 0.330). B. cepacia-positive patients presented significantly lower FEV1 than did B. cepacia-negative patients (p = 0.011). No significant differences were found between B. cepacia-positive patients and B. cepacia-negative patients regarding the following variables: clinical score (p = 0.080); radiological score (p = 0.760); TRV (p = 0.613); DRV (p = 0.429); and RV/PA SAT (p = 0.149). Conclusions: Chronic infection with P. aeruginosa or B. cepacia presented no association with pulmonary hypertension in adult CF patients. Pulmonary function was worse in B. cepacia-positive patients than in P. aeruginosa-positive patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Bacterial infections; Hypertension, pulmonary; Echocardiography, Doppler.

 


The role of the FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio in the diagnosis of obstructivelung diseases

O papel da razão FEF50%/0,5CVF no diagnóstico dosdistúrbios ventilatórios obstrutivos

Marcelo Tadday Rodrigues, Daniel Fiterman-Molinari, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):44-50

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the contribution of a new coefficient, the FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio, obtained from the maximal expiratory flow-volume curve, to the diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (OLD); to test this coefficient in differentiating among patients considered normal, those with OLD and those with restrictive lung disease (RLD); and to determine cut-off points for each functional diagnosis, as well as the probability for each diagnosis based on individual values. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the pulmonary function of patients referred to the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, between January and December of 2003. We collected demographic and spirometric data. The patients were divided into three groups: normal; OLD; and RLD. We calculated the FEV1/FVC and FEF50%/0.5FVC ratios, and we compared the mean FEF50%/0.5FVC values among the groups. We used Pearson's correlation test in order to compare FEF50%/0.5FVC with FEV1/FVC. The patients were again divided into two groups: those with OLD and those without OLD. We calculated the likelihood ratio for different cut-off points. Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 14.7 years. There were significant differences among the groups in terms of the mean FEF50%/0.5FVC (2.10 ± 0.82, 2.55 ± 1.47 and 0.56 ± 0.29, respectively, for normal, RLD and OLD; p < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between FEF50%/0.5FVC and FEV1/FVC in the OLD group (r = 0.83). We found that an FEF50%/0.5FVC < 0.79 strongly suggests OLD, whereas an FEF50%/0.5FVC > 1.33 practically excludes this diagnosis. Conclusions: The FEF50%/0.5FVC ratio is a potentially useful parameter in the differential diagnosis of OLD and correlates positively with the FEV1/FVC ratio.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Spirometry; Respiratory function tests.

 


Can the single-breath helium dilution method predict lung volumes as measured by whole-body plethysmography?

Pode o método de diluição do hélio em respiração única estimar os volumes pulmonares medidos pela pletismografia de corpo inteiro?

Patrícia Chaves Coertjens, Marli Maria Knorst, Anelise Dumke, Adriane Schmidt Pasqualoto, João Riboldi, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):675-685

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. Results: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). Conclusions: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography, whole body; Total lung capacity; Residual volume.

 


Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension evaluated by Doppler echocardiography in a population of adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar avaliada por ecocardiografia Doppler em uma população de pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Bruna Ziegler, Antônio Fernando Furlan Pinotti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):83-90

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), to compare clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, pulmonary function, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with and without PH, and to correlate echocardiographic findings with clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, and pulmonary function. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients (aged 16 or older) enrolled in an adult CF program. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and chest X-rays. Results: Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was obtained in 37 of the 40 patients studied. The prevalence of PH was 49% with a TRV cut-off of 2.5 m/s (18 patients) and 30% with a TRV cut-off of 2.8 m/s (11 patients). Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) at rest, clinical score, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the group with PH. The TRV was found to correlate significantly with SpO2 at rest (p < 0.001), clinical score (p < 0.001), radiographic score (p = 0.030), FEV1 in liters (p < 0.001) and in % of predicted (p < 0.001), and FCV in liters (p = 0.008) and in % of predicted (p = 0.001). The single best predictor of TRV was SpO2 at rest (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The high prevalence of PH in the CF patients studied suggests that PH should be considered in the evaluation and follow-up treatment of such patients. The best predictor of PH was SpO2 at rest.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Tricuspid valve/physiopathology; Hypertension, pulmonary; Echocardiography, Doppler.

 


Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a general hospital

Profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral

Fernanda Fuzinatto, André Wajner, Fernando Starosta de Waldemar, João Luiz de Souza Hopf, Juliana Ferro Schuh, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):160-167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in a general hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study at the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, involving a random sample of patients admitted between October of 2008 and February of 2009. We included patients over 18 years of age and hospitalized for more than 48 h. The exclusion criteria were anticoagulant use, pregnancy, puerperium, and a history of thromboembolic disease. The adequacy of prophylaxis was evaluated in accordance with a protocol created by the Hospital and principally based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, eighth edition. Results: We included 262 patients. The mean age was 59.1 ± 16.6 years. The most common risk factors were immobilization (in 70.6%), infection (in 44.3%), cancer (in 27.5%), obesity (in 23.3%), and major surgery (in 14.1%). The risk of VTE was classified as high and moderate in 143 (54.6%) and 117 (44.7%) of the patients, respectively. Overall, 46.2% of the patients received adequate prophylaxis, 25% of those with ≥ three risk factors for VTE and 18% of those with cancer, the differences between these last two groups and their counterparts (patients with < three risk factors and those without cancer) being statistically significant (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: Our data reveal that nearly all patients at our hospital were at risk for VTE, and that less than half received adequate VTE prophylaxis, which is in agreement with the literature. It is surprising that inadequate prophylaxis is more common in high-risk patients.

 


Keywords: Venous thromboembolism/prevention and control; Venous thrombosis/prevention and control; Heparin.

 


Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in an intensive care unit

Profilaxia para tromboembolia venosa em uma unidade de tratamento intensivo

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paula Mallman da Silva, Carlo Sasso Faccin, Alexandro de Lucena Theil, Alice Hoefel Nunes, Cleovaldo T. S. Pinheiro

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(1):-

Abstract PDF PT

Objectives: To identify the degree of risk and the practice of prophylaxis to venous thromboembolism (VTE) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: The subjects were patients admitted to the ICU between December 1997 and February 1998. Patients were excluded if they were in anticoagulant therapy or presented contra-indication to heparin. Determination of risk factors and classification of the degree of risk for VTE were done according to international consensus. The ICU medical staff did not know about the study. Results: The authors evaluated one hundred and eighty patients with a mean age of 58 years (±16.5). Risk factors more frequently found were: age ³ 40 years (85.0%), surgery (47.8%), thoracic or abdominal infection (22.8%). Two or more risk factors were present in 146 (81%) cases. In the evaluation of VTE risk, 142 (79%) patients were classified as moderate/high risk. Prophylactic measures were prescribed to 102 patients (57%), and heparin was used in 60% of moderate/high risk cases. There was a significant association between risk level and the number of risk factors with the use of prophylaxis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: VTE risk factors were frequent in the sample analyzed. However, 40% of patients considered moderate/high risk did not receive pharmacological prophylaxis for VTE.

 


Keywords: thromboembolism, prevention & control

 


Relationship between functional and X-ray alterations in patients with cystic fibrosis

Relação entre alterações funcionais e radiológicas em pacientes com fibrose cística

Andréia Kist Fernandes, Felipe Mallmann, Ângela Beatriz John, Carlo Sasso Faccin, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(4):196-201

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease marked by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction, resulting in air trapping in the lungs. Objective: To assess the associations between airflow limitation, pulmonary volume and X-ray findings in patients with cystic fibrosis. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective study. Review of spirometric, plethysmographic, and chest X-ray findings of outpatients (age ³ 16 years). The airflow findings were classified as within normal limits or as airflow obstruction: mild, moderate or severe obstructive alteration. Results: A total of 23 patients (15 male and eight female; mean age, 21 ± 5.9 years) were studied. Six of them were within normal limits, four had a mild, five had a moderate, and eight had a severe obstructive alteration. There was an association between airflow limitation and the increase of residual volume (p = 0.006) and also with the Brasfield score (p = 0.001), but not with the total lung capacity (p = 0.33). There was a correlation between residual volume and Brasfield score (r = 0,73, p = 0,002), but not with the total pulmonary capacity. Moreover, according to X-ray criteria, the air trapping was correlated only with the residual volume (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In patients with cystic fibrosis (age ³ 16 years), the progressive airflow limitation is accompanied by an increase in residual volume, while the total pulmonary capacity remains normal or tends to decrease. The X-ray score was associated with airflow limitation and residual volume, but not with total lung capacity.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary disease. Lung volume measurements. Radiography, thoracic.

 


Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C)

Síndrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por vírus C e SIDA

Maria Angélica Pires Ferreira, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Marli Maria Knorst

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(1):52-55

Abstract PDF PT

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome.

 


Keywords: Hepatopulmonary syndrome. Acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome. Human viral hepatitis. Anoxemia. Liver cirrhosis.

 


A clinical decision support system for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis at a general hospital in a middle-income country

Sistema de suporte à decisão clínica para um programa para profilaxia de tromboembolia venosa em um hospital geral de um país de renda média

Fernanda Fuzinatto, Fernando Starosta de Waldemar, André Wajner, Cesar Al Alam Elias, Juliana Fernándes Fernandez, João Luiz de Souza Hopf, Sergio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):138-146

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the impact that implementing a combination of a computer-based clinical decision support system and a program of training seminars has on the use of appropriate prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two phases (prior to and after the implementation of the new VTE prophylaxis protocol) in order to evaluate the impact that the combined strategy had on the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis. The study was conducted at Nossa Senhora da ConceiþÒo Hospital, a general hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. We included clinical and surgical patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalized for ≥ 48 h. The pre-implementation and post-implementation phase samples comprised 262 and 261 patients, respectively. Results: The baseline characteristics of the two samples were similar, including the distribution of patients by risk level. Comparing the pre-implementation and post-implementation periods, we found that the overall use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased from 46.2% to 57.9% (p = 0.01). Looking at specific patient populations, we observed that the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis increased more dramatically among cancer patients (from 18.1% to 44.1%; p = 0.002) and among patients with three or more risk factors (from 25.0% to 42.9%; p = 0.008), two populations that benefit most from prophylaxis. Conclusions: It is possible to increase the use of appropriate VTE prophylaxis in economically constrained settings through the use of a computerized protocol adhered to by trained professionals. The underutilization of prophylaxis continues to be a major problem, indicative of the need for ongoing improvement in the quality of inpatient care.

 


Keywords: Venous thrombosis/prevention & control; Venous thromboembolism/prevention & control; Heparin/therapeutic use.

 


Sleepiness and motor vehicle accidents

Sonolência e acidentes automobilísticos

Simone Fagondes Canani, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(2):94-96

Abstract PDF PT

Objective: The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of the effects of excessive sleepiness on driving performance, and to emphasize the importance of the subject. Methods: Bibliographic review of national and international literature, including original articles and official publications from the American Thoracic Society and the American Sleep Apnea Association. Results: There is growing evidence that excessive sleepiness may be an important factor related to the occurrence of motor vehicle accidents. Difficulties regarding the identification of sleepiness as a preceding factor related to motor vehicle crashes are discussed on the text. There are many causes for excessive sleepiness. Fortunately most of them are easy to recognize and have specific treatment. Conclusions: A better understanding of the problem is fundamental to promote a better approach for patients with excessive sleepiness and perhaps encourage the discussion about the current motor vehicle legislation and the physicians' legal obligations.

 


Keywords: sleepiness; motor vehicle accidents

 


Thromboprofilaxis for videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy

Tromboprofilaxia na colecistectomia videolaparoscópica

Renato Maciel, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):480-484

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Based in a case of a patient who developed pulmonary embolism three days after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in spite of using unfrationated heparin starting before surgery and mantained in the first 24hs postoperatively. The authors have analysed the risk factors and the rate of VTE in laparoscopic cholecystectomy , the use of thromboprofilaxis and suggested procedures that should be adopted

 


Keywords: Cholecystectomy. Video laparoscopy. Pneumoperitoneum

 


A new approach to the determination of airway resistance: interrupter technique vs. plethysmography

Uma nova abordagem na determinação da resistência das vias aéreas: técnica do interruptor vs. pletismografia

Leandro Antônio Gritti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):61-68

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the agreement between interrupter resistance (Rint) and airway resistance (Raw) by plethysmography in order to verify the clinical applicability of the interrupter technique. Methods: The Rint technique was performed with the patients in a sitting position, during exhalation, with a nose clip and cheek support. Plethysmography was carried out in accordance with standard protocols. All measurements were taken prior to and after the administration of an inhaled bronchodilator via a metered dose inhaler with a spacer. Results: The study comprised 99 consecutive patients referred to the Porto Alegre Hospital de Clínicas, located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, for pulmonary function testing. Patient ages ranged from 18 to 82 years, and 52 of the patients were women. In the patients with FEV1 ≥ 60% of predicted, there was good agreement between the methods (r = 0.8; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.8). The Rint values were lower than were those of Raw by plethysmography in the patients with more severe disease. However, there was good agreement between Rint ≥ 4 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 and Raw by plethysmography > 2.5 cmH2O  L−1  s−1 (likelihood ratio > 8; kappa coefficient = 0.73). Conclusions: In the patients with less severe disease, there was good agreement between Rint and Raw by plethysmography. The agreement between the two methods was also strong regarding the detection of an increase in Raw. The Rint technique is a potentially useful method for the evaluation of adult patients.

 


Keywords: Plethysmography; Airway resistance; Diagnostic techniques, respiratory system; Respiratory function tests; Airway obstruction/diagnosis.

 


Uma realidade

Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):411-412

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: validation for use in Brazil

Validação da escala de sonolência de Epworth em português para uso no Brasil

Alessandra Naimaier Bertolazi, Simone Chaves Fagondes, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Vinícius Dallagasperina Pedro, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Murray W. Johns

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):877-883

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) for use in Brazil. Methods: The steps involved in creating the ESS in Brazilian Portuguese (ESS-BR) were as follows: translation; back-translation; comparison (by a committee) between the translation and the back-translation; and testing in bilingual individuals. The ESS-BR was applied to a group of patients who were submitted to overnight polysomnography in order to identify obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), insomnia and primary snoring. A control group was composed of subjects with a history of normal sleep habits, without reported snoring. Results: A total of 114 patients and 21 controls were included. The 8-item scores of the ESS-BR had an overall reliability coefficient of 0.83. The study group was composed of 59 patients with OSAHS, 34 patients with primary snoring and 21 patients with insomnia. One-way ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in ESS-BR scores among the four diagnostic groups (p < 0.001). Post-hoc tests between groups showed that the ESS-BR scores of the patients with insomnia did not differ from those of the controls (p > 0.05). The ESS-BR scores were significantly higher for OSAHS patients and for primary snorers than for controls (p < 0.05). In addition, the scores for OSAHS patients were significantly higher than were those for primary snorers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that the ESS-BR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of daytime sleepiness, equivalent to its original version when applied to individuals who speak Brazilian Portuguese.

 


Keywords: Validation studies; Sleep disorders; Cross-cultural comparison; Disorders of excessive somnolence.

 


 

 


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