Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Is there a rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation following successful chemotherapy for tuberculosis?

Existe razão para reabilitação pulmonar após o tratamento quimioterápico bem-sucedido para tuberculose?

Marcela Muñoz-Torrico1, Adrian Rendon2, Rosella Centis3, Lia D'Ambrosio3,4, Zhenia Fuentes5, Carlos Torres-Duque6, Fernanda Mello7, Margareth Dalcolmo8, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla9, Antonio Spanevello10,11, Giovanni Battista Migliori3

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):367-373

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The role of tuberculosis as a public health care priority and the availability of diagnostic tools to evaluate functional status (spirometry, plethysmography, and DLCO determination), arterial blood gases, capacity to perform exercise, lesions (chest X-ray and CT), and quality of life justify the effort to consider what needs to be done when patients have completed their treatment. To our knowledge, no review has ever evaluated this topic in a comprehensive manner. Our objective was to review the available evidence on this topic and draw conclusions regarding the future role of the "post-tuberculosis treatment" phase, which will potentially affect several million cases every year. We carried out a non-systematic literature review based on a PubMed search using specific keywords (various combinations of the terms "tuberculosis", "rehabilitation", "multidrug-resistant tuberculosis", "pulmonary disease", "obstructive lung disease", and "lung volume measurements"). The reference lists of the most important studies were retrieved in order to improve the sensitivity of the search. Manuscripts written in English, Spanish, and Russian were selected. The main areas of interest were tuberculosis sequelae following tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment; "destroyed lung"; functional evaluation of sequelae; pulmonary rehabilitation interventions (physiotherapy, long-term oxygen therapy, and ventilation); and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.The evidence found suggests that tuberculosis is definitively responsible for functional sequelae, primarily causing an obstructive pattern on spirometry (but also restrictive and mixed patterns), and that there is a rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation. We also provide a list of variables that should be discussed in future studies on pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with post-tuberculosis sequelae.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/complications; Tuberculosis/rehabilitation, Tuberculosis/therapy; Quality of life; Diagnostic imaging; Respiratory function tests.

 


New and repurposed drugs to treat multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis

Novos fármacos e fármacos repropostos para o tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente e extensivamente resistente

Denise Rossato Silva1,a, Margareth Dalcolmo2,b, Simon Tiberi3,c, Marcos Abdo Arbex4,5,d, Marcela Munoz-Torrico6,e, Raquel Duarte7,8,9,f, Lia D'Ambrosio10,11,g, Dina Visca12,h, Adrian Rendon13,i, Mina Gaga14,j, Alimuddin Zumla15,k, Giovanni Battista Migliori10,l

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):153-460

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and XDR-TB, respectively) continue to represent a challenge for clinicians and public health authorities. Unfortunately, although there have been encouraging reports of higher success rates, the overall rate of favorable outcomes of M/XDR-TB treatment is only 54%, or much lower when the spectrum of drug resistance is beyond that of XDR-TB. Treating M/XDR-TB continues to be a difficult task, because of the high incidence of adverse events, the long duration of treatment, the high cost of the regimens used, and the drain on health care resources. Various trials and studies have recently been undertaken (some already published and others ongoing), all aimed at improving outcomes of M/XDR-TB treatment by changing the overall approach, shortening treatment duration, and developing a universal regimen. The objective of this review was to summarize what has been achieved to date, as far as new and repurposed drugs are concerned, with a special focus on delamanid, bedaquiline, pretomanid, clofazimine, carbapenems, and linezolid. After more than 40 years of neglect, greater attention has recently been paid to the need for new drugs to fight the "white plague", and promising results are being reported.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/therapy; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; Antitubercular agents.

 


Predictors of tuberculosis treatment outcomes

Preditores dos desfechos do tratamento da tuberculose

Renata de Lima Orofino, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do Brasil, Anete Trajman, Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Margareth Dalcolmo, Valéria Cavalcanti Rolla

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):88-97

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their predictors. Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2004 and 2006 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for the predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: Among 311 patients evaluated, the rates of cure, treatment abandonment, treatment failure, and mortality were 72%, 19%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Changes in the treatment regimen due to adverse events occurred in 8%. The factors found to reduce the probability of cure were alcoholism (ARR, 0.30), use of the streptomycin+ethambutol+ofloxacin (SEO) regimen (ARR, 0.32), HIV infection without the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ARR, 0.36), and use of the rifampin+isoniazid+pyrazinamide+ethambutol regimen (ARR, 0.58). Being younger and being alcoholic both increased the probability of abandonment (ARR, 3.84 and 1.76, respectively). It was impossible to determine the ARR for the remaining outcomes due to their low prevalence. However, using the relative risk (RR), we identified the following potential predictors of mortality: use of the SEO regimen (RR, 11.43); HIV infection without ART (RR, 9.64); disseminated tuberculosis (RR, 9.09); lack of bacteriological confirmation (RR, 4.00); diabetes mellitus (RR, 3.94); and homosexual/bisexual behavior (RR, 2.97). Low income was a potential predictor of treatment failure (RR, 11.70), whereas disseminated tuberculosis and HIV infection with ART were potential predictors of changes in the regimen due to adverse events (RR, 3.57 and 2.46, respectively). Conclusions: The SEO regimen should not be used for extended periods. The data confirm the importance of ART and suggest the need to use it early.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV; Rifampin; Drug toxicity; Risk factors; Medication adherence.

 


Tuberculosis series

Série tuberculose

Denise Rossato Silva1,a, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello2,b, Afrânio Kritski3,c, Margareth Dalcolmo4,d, Alimuddin Zumla5,e, Giovanni Battista Migliori6

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):71-72

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