Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Usefulness of chest CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration

A utilidade da TC de tórax no diagnóstico do sequestro pulmonar

José Gustavo Pugliese, Thiago Prudente Bártholo, Heron Teixeira Andrade dos Santos, Eduardo Haruo Saito, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):260-264

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by nonfunctional embryonic pulmonary tissue. Pulmonary sequestration accounts for 0.15-6.40% of all congenital pulmonary malformations. This anomaly, which is classified as intralobar or extralobar, involves the lung parenchyma and its vascularization. We report the case of a 56-year-old male presenting with hemoptysis. A chest X-ray showed an area of opacity behind the cardiac silhouette in the base of the left hemithorax. Chest CT scans with intravenous contrast revealed pulmonary sequestration. The patient underwent surgery, in which the anomalous tissue was successful resected. The postoperative evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged to outpatient treatment.

 


Keywords: Hemoptysis; Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Tomography, spiral computed.

 


Analysis of 39 cases of idiopathic chronic interstitial pneumonia

Análise de 39 casos de pneumonia intersticial crônica idiopática

Rogério Rufino, Leonardo Rizzo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Roberto José de Lima, Kalil Madi

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):505-509

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To make a retrospective analysis of lung biopsy samples obtained from patients diagnosed with chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, as defined in the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system made public in 2000. Methods: Samples from 252 open-lung biopsies of patients with interstitial lung disease, all performed between 1977 and 1999, were reviewed, and 39 cases of idiopathic interstitial lung disease were selected and re-evaluated by two pathologists in accordance with the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification system. Results: Among those 39 cases, the diagnoses were maintained in 28 (71.8%). A new pathologic entity, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, was included in the reclassification, and overlapping patterns were observed in 6 cases. Of the 28 cases in which the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia remained unchanged, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 4, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia was accompanied by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in 1. All cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were confirmed, although 3 of those were found to be accompanied by cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. Virtually all prior diagnoses were maintained in the review of the biopsy samples (p > 0,05). Conclusion: The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society system of classifying interstitial lung disease is a useful tool for pathologists who deal with lung biopsies.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis; Lung diseases, interstitial

 


Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

Atualização no diagnóstico e tratamento da fibrose pulmonar idiopática

José Baddini-Martinez1, Bruno Guedes Baldi2, Cláudia Henrique da Costa3, Sérgio Jezler4, Mariana Silva Lima5, Rogério Rufino3,6

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):454-466

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/diagnosis; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/therapy; Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/rehabilitation.

 


Evaluation of von Willebrand factor in COPD patients

Avaliação do fator de von Willebrand em pacientes com DPOC

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):373-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the absolute serum von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels and relative serum vWF activity in patients with clinically stable COPD, smokers without airway obstruction, and healthy never-smokers. Methods: The study included 57 subjects, in three groups: COPD (n = 36); smoker (n = 12); and control (n = 9). During the selection phase, all participants underwent chest X-rays, spirometry, and blood testing. Absolute serum vWF levels and relative serum vWF activity were obtained by turbidimetry and ELISA, respectively. The modified Medical Research Council scale (cut-off score = 2) was used in order to classify COPD patients as symptomatic or mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic. Results: Absolute vWF levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the smoker and COPD groups: 989 ± 436 pg/mL vs. 2,220 ± 746 pg/mL (p < 0.001) and 1,865 ± 592 pg/mL (p < 0.01). Relative serum vWF activity was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the smoker group (136.7 ± 46.0% vs. 92.8 ± 34.0%; p < 0.05), as well as being significantly higher in the symptomatic COPD subgroup than in the mildly symptomatic/asymptomatic COPD subgroup (154 ± 48% vs. 119 ± 8%; p < 0.05). In all three groups, there was a negative correlation between FEV1 (% of predicted) and relative serum vWF activity (r2 = −0.13; p = 0.009). Conclusions: Our results suggest that increases in vWF levels and activity contribute to the persistence of systemic inflammation, as well as increasing cardiovascular risk, in COPD patients.

 


Keywords: von Willebrand factor; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Endothelial cells.

 


Quantitative assessment of elastic fibers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Avaliação quantitativa das fibras elásticas na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Kalil Madi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Eduardo Haruo Saito, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):502-509

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To quantify elastic fibers (EFs) and smooth muscle (SM) cells, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Surgical specimens were obtained from 15 COPD patients, 18 smokers without airflow limitation, and 14 nonsmokers. Histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed in order to quantify EFs, SM cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells. Results: There was no significant difference in EF numbers among the three groups (p > 0.05). The number of EFs per unit area of lung tissue (mm2) and the percentage of EFs in the lung tissue were similar among the three groups. The numbers of SM cells were found to be higher in the COPD patients than in the smokers (p = 0.003) or in the nonsmokers (p = 0.009). There was a tendency toward an increase in CD8+ T-cell counts in the COPD patients. In specimens collected from the COPD patients, CD4+ T-cell counts were lower than in those collected from the smokers (p = 0.015) or from the nonsmokers (p = 0.003). There was a weak correlation between CD4+ T-cell count and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (r2 = 0.003). Conclusions: The EF counts were similar among the three groups. Hypertrophy/hyperplasia of airway wall SM cells was found in the COPD patients and in the smokers, indicating that airway remodeling occurs in smokers. The CD4/CD8 ratio was lower in the COPD patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Elastic tissue; Muscle, smooth.

 


Cellular and biochemical bases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Bases celulares e bioquímicas da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogério Rufino, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):241-248

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is an inflammatory disease. Together with oxidant stimuli, which directly affect lung structures, macrophages, neutrophils and CD8+ lymphocytes actively participate in the pathogenesis of the disease and promote biochemical reactions that result in progressive alteration of the upper airways and irreversible lung remodeling. The release of substances promoted by inflammatory cell recruitment and by oxidative stress lead to a temporary imbalance in the pulmonary defense mechanisms. Understanding the long-term maintenance of this imbalance is key to understanding the current physiopathology of the disease. The present study explores the cellular and molecular alterations seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/physiopathology; Lung/metabolism; Inflammation; Oxydants; Antioxidants; Oxidative stress

 


Epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Características epidemiológicas de pacientes com sarcoidose na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Vinicius Lemos-Silva, Paula Barroso Araújo, Christiane Lopes, Rogério Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(4):438-445

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive, case-control study involving 100 sarcoidosis patients under outpatient treatment between 2008 and 2010 at the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was based on clinical, radiological, biochemical, and histopathological criteria. Results: There was a predominance of females in the 35-40 year age bracket (range, 7-69 years), who accounted for 65% of the sample, although there was a second peak at approximately 55 years of age. The most common symptom was dyspnea (in 47%), and the most common radiological findings were pulmonary and lymph node involvement (stage II; in 43%), followed by stage III (in 20%), stage I (in 19%), stage 0 (in 15%), and stage IV (in 3%). No pleural effusion or digital clubbing was observed at diagnosis. The tuberculin skin test was negative in 94 patients. Spirometric findings at diagnosis were normal in 61 patients; indicative of obstructive lung disease in 21; and indicative of restrictive lung disease in 18. The most common biopsy sites were the lungs (principally by bronchoscopy) and the skin, the diagnosis being confirmed by biopsy in 56% and 29% of the cases, respectively. Treatment with prednisone was initiated in 75% of the patients and maintained for more than 2 years in 19.7%. Conclusions: This study corroborates the findings of previous studies regarding the epidemiological characteristics of sarcoidosis patients.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis/epidemiology; Sarcoidosis/diagnosis; Sarcoidosis/therapy.

 


Accelerated form of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in the native lung after single lung transplantation

Forma acelerada da fibrose pulmonar idiopática no pulmão nativo após transplante pulmonar unilateral

Rogério Rufino, Kalil Madi, Omar Mourad, Angelo Judice, Giovanni Marsico, Carlos Henrique Boasquevisque

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):733-737

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We report the case of a 56-year-old patient who underwent left single lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Despite the high level of immunosuppression after the surgery, there was rapid progression to IPF in the native (right) lung as demonstrated by thoracoscopic lung biopsy. After 104 days on mechanical ventilation, the patient underwent right lung transplant and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 26.

 


Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; Lung transplantation; Case reports [publication type].

 


Induced sputum and peripheral blood cell profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Perfil celular do escarro induzido e sangue periférico na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Rogerio Rufino, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza, Kalil Madi, José Roberto Lapa e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):510-518

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine cell profiles, as well as to identify CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subgroups, in induced sputum (IS) and peripheral venous blood (PVB) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Total cell counts and counts of individual cell types, including CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, were determined in the IS and PVB of 85 subjects (38 with COPD without exacerbation, 29 smokers without obstruction and 18 nonsmokers). Mann-Whitney and Spearman non-parametric tests were used in the statistical analysis, and values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Comparing the IS of subjects with COPD to that of nonsmokers, neutrophil, eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher (respectively p = 0.005, p < 0.05 and p < 0.05), whereas the percentage of macrophages was lower (p = 0.003). There were weak linear correlations (r2 < 0.1) between each cell type in IS and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Eosinophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were also higher in PVB (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02). Conclusions: In patients with stable COPD, CD8+ T lymphocyte counts were higher in PVB, whereas total leukocyte counts were similar to those of the other two groups analyzed, suggesting systemic inflammatory involvement. The CD8+ T lymphocyte count in blood can be a useful marker of systemic inflammation and can help identify smokers who already present a COPD inflammatory pattern.

 


Keywords: Sputum; T-lymphocytes; Neutrophils; Macrophages; Eosinophils; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Hemophagocytic syndrome due to pulmonary sarcoidosis

Síndrome hemofagocítica devido a sarcoidose pulmonar

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, José Gustavo Pugliese, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Vinicius Lemos da Silva, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):667-671

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare clinical condition, it is associated with high mortality and the number of cases described in the literature has progressively increased. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome is made on the basis of a finding of hemophagocytosis. Sarcoidosis is a highly prevalent disease whose course and prognosis might correlate with the initial clinical presentation and the extent of the disease. We report the case of a patient with long-standing sarcoidosis who presented with intermittent fever and fatigue. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome was made by bone marrow aspiration, and specific treatment was ineffective. This is the third case of sarcoidosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome reported in the literature and the first reported in Latin America. All three cases had unfavorable outcomes.

 


Keywords: Lymphohistiocytosis, hemophagocytic; Ferritins; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary; Macrophage activation syndrome.

 


Treatment of lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Camões

Tratamento da linfangioleiomiomatose e Camões

Rogério Rufino1

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):295-296

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