Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Update on the approach to smoking in patients with respiratory diseases

Atualização na abordagem do tabagismo em pacientes com doenças respiratórias

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales1,a, Alberto José de Araújo2,b, José Miguel Chatkin3,c, Irma de Godoy4,d, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira5,e, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano6,f, Suzana Erico Tanni4,g, Adriana Ávila de Almeida7,h, Gustavo Chatkin3,i, Luiz Carlos Côrrea da Silva8,j, Cristina Maria Cantarino Gonçalves9,k, Clóvis Botelho12,13,l, Ubiratan Paula Santos14,m, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas15,n, Maristela Rodrigues Sestelo16,o, Ricardo Henrique Sampaio Meireles10,11,p, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Correa17,q, Maria Eunice Moraes de Oliveira18,r, Jonatas Reichert19,s, Mariana Silva Lima6,t, Celso Antonio Rodrigues da Silva20,u

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180314-e20180314

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.

 


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases/therapy; Respiratory tract diseases/drug therapy; Tobacco use disorder/epidemiology; Smoking cessation; Counseling; Lung neoplasms.

 


Evaluation of smoking cessation treatment initiated during hospitalization in patients with heart disease or respiratory disease

Avaliação de um tratamento para cessação do tabagismo iniciado durante a hospitalização em pacientes com doença cardíaca ou doença respiratória

Thaís Garcia1,a, Sílvia Aline dos Santos Andrade2, Angélica Teresa Biral1, André Luiz Bertani1,b, Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1,c, Talita Jacon Cezare3, Irma Godoy4,d, Suzana Erico Tanni3,e

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(1):42-48

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program, delivered by trained health care professionals, in patients hospitalized for acute respiratory disease (RD) or heart disease (HD). Methods: Of a total of 393 patients evaluated, we included 227 (146 and 81 active smokers hospitalized for HD and RD, respectively). All participants received smoking cessation treatment during hospitalization and were followed in a cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program for six months after hospital discharge. Results: There were significant differences between the HD group and the RD group regarding participation in the cognitive-behavioral program after hospital discharge (13.0% vs. 35.8%; p = 0.003); smoking cessation at the end of follow-up (29% vs. 31%; p < 0.001); and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (3.4% vs. 33.3%; p < 0.001). No differences were found between the HD group and the RD group regarding the use of bupropion (11.0% vs. 12.3%; p = 0.92). Varenicline was used by only 0.7% of the patients in the HD group. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking cessation rates at six months after hospital discharge were higher among the patients with RD than among those with HD, as were treatment adherence rates. The implementation of smoking cessation programs for hospitalized patients with different diseases, delivered by the health care teams that treat these patients, is necessary for greater effectiveness in smoking cessation.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Smoking cessation; Hospitalization; Respiratory tract diseases; Heart diseases.

 


Evaluation of hospitalized patients in terms of their knowledge related to smoking

Avaliação do conhecimento sobre tabagismo em pacientes internados

Suzana Erico Tanni, Nathalie Izumi Iritsu, Masaki Tani, Paula Angeleli Bueno de Camargo, Marina Gonçalves Elias Sampaio, Ilda Godoy, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):218-223

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify characteristics related to smoking in hospitalized patients and to assess the knowledge that such patients have regarding the relationship between nicotine dependence and smoking-related diseases. Methods: The study included 186 patients (males, 59%; mean age, 51.3 ± 16.8 years) who were evaluated regarding demographic characteristics, diagnosis at admission, smoking history and passive smoke exposure. All of the patients completed a questionnaire regarding their knowledge of the relationship between smoking and disease. Results: Of the 186 patients, 42 (22.6%) were smokers, 64 (34.4%) were former smokers and 80 (43%) stated they were never smokers; 136 (73%) reported passive smoke exposure. In the sample as a whole, 21.5% of the patients were diagnosed with a smoking-related disease at admission, compared with 39% of those who were smokers or former smokers. The proportion of individuals who were unaware of the relationship between smoking and the cause of hospitalization was similar among current smokers and former smokers (56% and 65%, respectively). Only 19% of the current smokers believed that smoking might have affected their health, compared with 32% of the former smokers (p = 0.22). The proportion of individuals who believed that quitting smoking depends on willpower was significantly higher among former smokers and never smokers than among current smokers (64% and 53%, respectively, vs. 24%; p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Although 96% of the patients believed that smoking causes dependence, only 60% identified smoking as a disease. Conclusions: This study shows the disconnect between the recognition of smoking as a cause of dependence and the recognition of smoking as a disease, as well as the general lack of awareness that former and current smoking constitute a risk factor for the development and progression of disease.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation.

 


Factors associated with the minimal clinically important difference for health-related quality of life after physical conditioning in patients with COPD

Fatores associados à diferença clinicamente significativa da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde após condicionamento físico em pacientes com DPOC

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira Antunes, Suzana Erico Tanni, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):846-853

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify factors associated with the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after physical conditioning in patients with COPD. Methods: Thirty-five patients were submitted to a 12-week program of physical conditioning (strength training plus low-intensity aerobic exercise). Body composition, incremental treadmill test results, endurance treadmill test results, six-minute walk test results, peripheral muscle strength, MIP, baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were assessed at baseline and after the program, thus allowing the variations (Δ) to be calculated. The MCID for HRQoL was defined as a reduction of ≥ 4% in the SGRQ total score. Subjects who responded to the program, achieving the MCID for HRQoL, were allocated to the responders (R) group (n = 24), and the remainder were allocated to the non-responders (NR) group (n = 11). Results: The values obtained for the following variables were significantly higher in group R than in group NR (p < 0.05): FEV1 (1.48 ± 0.54 L vs. 1.04 ± 0.34 L); VEF1/FVC (47.9 ± 11.7% vs. 35.5 ± 10.7%); PaO2 (74.1 ± 9.7 mmHg vs. 65.0 ± 8.9 mmHg); and ΔBDI, expressed as median and interquartile range (2.0 [0.0-3.5] vs. 0.0 [0.0-1.0]). The ΔBDI correlated significantly with the ΔSGRQ symptoms domain score, activity domain score and total score (r = 0.44, 0.60 and 0.62, respectively, p < 0.01 for all). After logistic regression, only ΔBDI remained as a predictor of MCID for HRQoL. Conclusions: Achieving the MCID for HRQoL after physical conditioning is associated with dyspnea reduction in COPD patients. Therefore, there is a need to develop treatment strategies designed to interrupt the dyspnea-inactivity-dyspnea cycle in such patients.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Dyspnea; Exercise; Rehabilitation.

 


Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with COPD: mild-to-moderate COPD versus severe-to-very severe COPD

Fatores de risco de doença cardiovascular em pacientes com DPOC: DPOC leve/moderada versus DPOC grave/muito grave

Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1, Renata Ferrari1, Cristiane Roberta Naves1, Liana Sousa Coelho1, Simone Alves do Vale1, Suzana Erico Tanni1, Irma Godoy1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(3):179-184

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess and compare the prevalence of comorbidities and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in COPD patients according to disease severity. Methods: The study included 25 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (68% male; mean age, 65 ± 8 years; mean FEV1, 73 ± 15% of predicted) and 25 with severe-to-very severe COPD (males, 56%; mean age, 69 ± 9 years; mean FEV1, 40 ± 18% of predicted). Comorbidities were recorded on the basis of data obtained from medical charts and clinical evaluations. Comorbidities were registered on the basis of data obtained from medical charts and clinical evaluations. The Charlson comorbidity index was calculated, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score was determined. Results: Of the 50 patients evaluated, 38 (76%) had been diagnosed with at least one comorbidity, 21 (42%) having been diagnosed with at least one CVD. Twenty-four patients (48%) had more than one CVD. Eighteen (36%) of the patients were current smokers, 10 (20%) had depression, 7 (14%) had dyslipidemia, and 7 (14%) had diabetes mellitus. Current smoking, depression, and dyslipidemia were more prevalent among the patients with mild-to-moderate COPD than among those with severe-to-very severe COPD (p < 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.02, respectively). The prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and chronic heart failure was comparable between the two groups. The Charlson comorbidity index and HADS scores did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: Comorbidities are highly prevalent in COPD, regardless of its severity. Certain risk factors for CVD, themselves classified as diseases (including smoking, dyslipidemia, and depression), appear to be more prevalent in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Spirometry; Cardiovascular diseases; Risk factors.

 


Impact of adherence to long-term oxygen therapy on patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia followed for one year

Impacto da adesão à oxigenoterapia de longa duração em pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia decorrente do esforço acompanhados durante um ano

Carolina Bonfanti Mesquita1,a, Caroline Knaut1,b, Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram1,c, Renata Ferrari1,d, Silmeia Garcia Zanati Bazan2,e, Irma Godoy1,f, Suzana Erico Tanni3,g

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(5):390-397

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the impact of adherence to long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) on quality of life, dyspnea, and exercise capacity in patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia followed for one year. Methods: Patients experiencing severe hypoxemia during a six-minute walk test (6MWT) performed while breathing room air but not at rest were included in the study. At baseline and after one year of follow-up, all patients were assessed for comorbidities, body composition, SpO2, and dyspnea, as well as for anxiety and depression, having also undergone spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, and the 6MWT with supplemental oxygen. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used in order to assess quality of life, and the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index was calculated. The frequency of exacerbations and the mortality rate were noted. Treatment nonadherence was defined as LTOT use for < 12 h per day or no LTOT use during exercise. Results: A total of 60 patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia were included in the study. Of those, 10 died and 11 experienced severe hypoxemia during follow-up, 39 patients therefore being included in the final analysis. Of those, only 18 (46.1%) were adherent to LTOT, showing better SGRQ scores, higher SpO2 values, and lower PaCO2 values than did nonadherent patients. In all patients, SaO2, the six-minute walk distance, and the BODE index worsened after one year. There were no differences between the proportions of adherence to LTOT at 3 and 12 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Quality of life appears to be lower in patients with COPD and exertional hypoxemia who do not adhere to LTOT than in those who do. In addition, LTOT appears to have a beneficial effect on COPD symptoms (as assessed by SGRQ scores). (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR‑9b4v63 [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br])

 


Keywords: Respiratory insufficiency; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Patient compliance; Hypoxia; Oxygen inhalation therapy.

 


Influence of the oxygen delivery system on the quality of life of patients with chronic hypoxemia

Influência do sistema de fornecimento de oxigênio na qualidade de vida de pacientes com hipoxemia crônica

Suzana Erico Tanni, Simone Alves Vale, Paula S Lopes, Marcelo M Guiotoko, Ilda Godoy, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):161-167

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN

Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) at home through oxygen cylinders and compare these results with those obtained six months after the transition from oxygen cylinders to oxygen concentrators. Methods: A total of 45 patients were evaluated. Of those, 24 had chronic hypoxemia and 21 presented no evidence of hypoxemia. The patients with chronic hypoxemia had been regularly receiving LTOT for at least the last six months and were evaluated at baseline, while using cylinders, and six months after the transition from cylinders to concentrators. The non-hypoxemic patients were evaluated at the same time points as were the hypoxemic patients. In order to evaluate quality of life, a version of the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), translated and validated for use in Brazil, was administered. Results: At baseline, quality of life, as evaluated using the total score and the symptom and impact domain scores of the SGRQ, was more impaired in the hypoxemic patients than in the non-hypoxemic patients. After six months of using the concentrators, the hypoxemic patients presented a significant improvement in the quality of life, and, at that time, no difference was found between the patients with and without hypoxemia. Conclusion: Our findings show that quality of life is impaired in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic hypoxemia, that their quality of life can be improved through regular use of LTOT, and that the oxygen delivery system has an influence on this improvement.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, Chronic obstructive; Anoxemia; Oxygen inhalation therapy; Quality of life.

 


Systemic manifestations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Manifestações sistêmicas na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Suzana Erico Tanni, Simone Alves Vale, Márcia Maria Faganello, Fernanda Figueirôa Sanches, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):161-171

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is progressive and is characterized by abnormal inflammation of the lungs in response to inhalation of noxious particles or toxic gases, especially cigarette smoke. Although this infirmity primarily affects the lungs, diverse extrapulmonary manifestations have been described. The likely mechanisms involved in the local and systemic inflammation seen in this disease include an increase in the number of inflammatory cells (resulting in abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines) and an imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity (leading to oxidative stress). Weakened physical condition secondary to airflow limitation can also lead to the development of altered muscle function. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presents diverse systemic effects including nutritional depletion and musculoskeletal dysfunction (causing a reduction in exercise tolerance), as well as other effects related to the comorbidities generally observed in these patients. These manifestations have been correlated with survival and overall health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. In view of these facts, the aim of this review was to discuss findings in the literature related to the systemic manifestations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphasizing the role played by systemic inflammation and evaluating various therapeutic strategies.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/complications; Nutritional status; Exercise tolerance;

 


Characteristics of smokers enrolled in a public smoking cessation program

Perfil de fumantes atendidos em serviço público para tratamento do tabagismo

Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram, Renata Ferrari, Suzana Erico Tanni, Liana Sousa Coelho, Ilda de Godoy, Rosana dos Santos e Silva Martin, Irma de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):980-985

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of smokers seeking treatment in a public smoking cessation program. Methods: This was a retrospective evaluation of data collected during the interview for enrollment in the smoking cessation program of the Smoking Outpatient Clinic of the Paulista State University School of Medicine in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, between April of 2003 and April of 2007. Demographic variables; previous use of the behavioral approach, medications or alternative treatments for smoking cessation; degree of nicotine dependence; and history of comorbidities were evaluated in 387 smokers. Results: In our sample, 63% of the smokers were female. The mean age of the subjects was 50 ± 25 years. More than half of the subjects (61%) had up to eight years of schooling, and 66% had a monthly income of less than twice the national minimum wage. The degree of nicotine dependence was high/very high in 59%, medium in 17% and low/very low in 24% of the subjects. Although 95% of the patients presented comorbidities, only 35% had been referred to the program by a physician. More than half of the subjects (68%) had made at least one smoking-cessation attempt, 83% of whom did so without the help of a structured program. Conclusions: Smokers seeking assistance for smoking cessation were socially disadvantaged, presented a high degree of nicotine dependence and had previously made smoking-cessation attempts without the benefit of a structured program. Therefore, in order to be effective, smoking control interventions should take into consideration the general characteristics of the smokers treated via the public health care system.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use disorder; Smoking cessation.

 


Gender differences in predictors of health status in patients with COPD

Preditores do estado de saúde em pacientes com DPOC de acordo com o gênero

Renata Ferrari, Suzana Erico Tanni, Paulo Adolfo Lucheta, Márcia Maria Faganello, Renata Antonialli Ferreira do Amaral, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(1):37-43

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the health status (HS) of COPD patients and to identify the main predictors of HS in these patients according to gender. Methods: The study included 90 COPD patients (60 males and 30 females; mean age = 64 ± 9 years) with a wide range of airway obstruction disorders (mean FEV1 = 56 ± 19% of predicted). The men were individually matched to the women by % of predicted FEV1 (ratio: 2:1). The patients were assessed regarding body composition; six-minute walk distance; perception of dyspnea using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale; Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Charlson comorbidity index; and the multidimensional Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of HS by gender. Results: Impairment of HS was greater among the women than among the men for SGRQ total score and for all SGRQ domains (total: 51 ± 18% vs. 38 ± 19%; p = 0.002; symptoms: 61 ± 22% vs. 42 ± 21%; p < 0.001; activity: 62 ± 18% vs. 49 ± 21%; p = 0.004; and impact: 41 ± 19% vs. 27 ± 18%; p = 0.001). The multiple linear regression showed that age and perception of dyspnea correlated with SGRQ total score for both genders (males, r² = 0.42; females, r² = 0.70; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed an association between gender and HS in COPD patients. Age and dyspnea are determinants of HS in both genders.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Health status; Dyspnea.

 


Preventing smoking during pregnancy: the importance of maternal knowledge of the health ha-zards and of the treatment options available

Prevenção do tabagismo na gravidez: importância do conhecimento materno sobre os malefícios para a saúde e opções de tratamento disponíveis

André Luís Bertani, Thais Garcia, Suzana Erico Tanni, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):175-181

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To examine the pattern of tobacco use and knowledge about tobacco-related diseases, as well as to identify popular types of electronic media, in pregnant women, in order to improve strategies for the prevention or cessation of smoking among such women. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 61 pregnant women, seen at primary care clinics and at a university hospital, in the city of Botucatu, Brazil. For all subjects, we applied the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For subjects with a history of smoking, we also applied the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and we evaluated the level of motivation to quit smoking among the current smokers. Results: Of the 61 pregnant women evaluated, 25 (40.9%) were smokers (mean age, 26.4  7.4 years), 24 (39.3%) were former smokers (26.4  8.3 years), and 12 (19.8%) were never-smokers (25.1  7.2 years). Thirty-nine women (63.9%) reported exposure to passive smoking. Of the 49 smokers/former smokers, 13 (26.5%) were aware of the pulmonary consequences of smoking; only 2 (4.1%) were aware of the cardiovascular risks; 23 (46.9%) believed that smoking does not harm the fetus or newborn infant; 21 (42.9%) drank alcohol during pregnancy; 18 (36.7%) reported increased cigarette consumption when drinking; 25 (51.0%) had smoked flavored cigarettes; and 12 (24.5%) had smoked a narghile. Among the 61 pregnant women evaluated, television was the most widely available and favorite form of electronic media (in 85.2%), as well as being the form most preferred (by 49.2%). Conclusions: Among pregnant women, active smoking, passive smoking, and alternative forms of tobacco consumption appear to be highly prevalent, and such women seem to possess little knowledge about the consequences of tobacco use. Educational programs that include information about the consequences of all forms of tobacco use, employing new and effective formats tailored to this particular population, should be developed, in order to promote smoking prevention and cessation among pregnant women. Further samples to explore regional and cultural adaptations should be evaluated.

 


Keywords: Pregnancy; Health knowledge, attitudes, practice; Smoking; Mass media; Smoking cessation; Primary prevention.

 


Smoking cessation program as a tool for the early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Programa de cessação de tabagismo como ferramenta para o diagnóstico precoce de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Ilda de Godoy, Suzana Erico Tanni, Liana Sousa Coelho, Rosana dos Santos e Silva Martin, Luciana Cristina Parenti, Luiz Mauro Andrade, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):282-286

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is underestimation as a result of underdiagnosis and undertreatment. The objective of this study was to determine whether using spirometry to evaluate smokers enrolled in smoking cessation programs facilitates early diagnosis of COPD. Methods: The medical records of 158 smokers enrolled in the smoking cessation program at the Botucatu School of Medicine (Botucatu, Brazil) between January of 2003 and November of 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. All were over 40 years old (mean age: 55 ± 8.5 years), and 99 (62.6%) were female. We analyzed the clinical data, the previous medical diagnosis, and the spirometry results. Results: The diagnostic criteria for COPD were met by 57 (36.1%) of the 158 individuals evaluated, and 14 individuals (8.9%) were considered to be at risk for the development of the disease. Of those 57 individuals meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of COPD, 39 (68.4%) were receiving their first diagnosis of COPD, whereas 18 (31.6%) were receiving confirmation of a prior diagnosis. Of the 18 individuals previously diagnosed, 10 (56%) presented the mild/moderate form of the disease, and 8 (44%) presented the severe form. Of the 39 newly diagnosed individuals, 38 (97,4%) presented the mild/moderate for of the disease, and only 1 (2,6%) had severe COPD. Seven patients previously diagnosed with COPD presented pulmonary function test results inconsistent with the diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Using spirometry in the initial evaluation of smokers enrolling in smoking cessation program might be a useful tool for early diagnosis of COPD.

 


Keywords: Smoking cessation; Spirometry; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.

 


Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses

Valores de referência para o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva em indivíduos saudáveis: da distância percorrida às respostas fisiológicas

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Ricardo Luís Fernandes Guerra, Suzana Erico Tanni, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira Antunes, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):190-197

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. Methods: We evaluated 103 healthy participants ≥ 40 years of age (54 women and 49 men). We fitted each participant with a gas analysis system for use during the ISWT. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, heart rate (HR), ISWD, and maximal walking velocity (MWV) were obtained as primary outcomes. We also assessed hand grip strength (HGS) and lean body mass (LBM). Results: The regression analysis models, including physiological variables, ISWD, and MWV (adjusted for age, body mass, height, and sex), produced R2 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.65 (for HR and peak VO2, respectively). Using the models including LBM or HGS, we obtained no significant increase in the R2 values for predicting peak VO2, although the use of those models did result in slight increases in the R2 values for ISWD and MWV (of 8% and 12%, respectively). The variables ISWD, MWV, and ISWD Î body mass, respectively, explained 76.7%, 73.3%, and 81.2% of peak VO2 variability. Conclusions:áOur results provide reference values for ISWD and physiological responses to the ISWT, which can be properly estimated by determining simple demographic and anthropometric characteristics in healthy adults ≥ 40 years of age. The ISWT could be used in assessing physical fitness in the general adult population and in designing individualized walking programs.

 


Keywords: Reference values; Pulmonary gas exchange; Walking; Exercise test.

 


 

 


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