Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Diagnostic accuracy of the Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency protocol for the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in spontaneously breathing patients

Acurácia diagnóstica do protocolo de ultrassom pulmonar à beira do leito em situações de emergência para diagnóstico de insuficiência respiratória aguda em pacientes com ventilação espontânea

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Juliana Mara Stormovski de Andrade, Ana Carolina Tabajara Raupp, Raquel da Silva Townsend, Fabiana Gabe Beltrami, Hélène Brisson, Qin Lu, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):58-64

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) is a noninvasive, readily available imaging modality that can complement clinical evaluation. The Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency (BLUE) protocol has demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Recently, bedside LUS has been added to the medical training program of our ICU. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of LUS based on the BLUE protocol, when performed by physicians who are not ultrasound experts, to guide the diagnosis of ARF. Methods: Over a one-year period, all spontaneously breathing adult patients consecutively admitted to the ICU for ARF were prospectively included. After training, 4 non-ultrasound experts performed LUS within 20 minutes of patient admission. They were blinded to patient medical history. LUS diagnosis was compared with the final clinical diagnosis made by the ICU team before patients were discharged from the ICU (gold standard). Results: Thirty-seven patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 73.2  14.7 years; APACHE II, 19.2  7.3). LUS diagnosis had a good agreement with the final diagnosis in 84% of patients (overall kappa, 0.81). The most common etiologies for ARF were pneumonia (n = 17) and hemodynamic lung edema (n = 15). The sensitivity and specificity of LUS as measured against the final diagnosis were, respectively, 88% and 90% for pneumonia and 86% and 87% for hemodynamic lung edema. Conclusions: LUS based on the BLUE protocol was reproducible by physicians who are not ultrasound experts and accurate for the diagnosis of pneumonia and hemodynamic lung edema.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography, interventional; Respiratory insufficiency; Intensive care units.

 


Adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis

Adesão ao tratamento em pacientes com fibrose cística

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Greice Rampon, Lílian Rech Pasin, Gretchem Mesquita Ramon, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão, Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):663-670

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Objectives: To evaluate the self-reported degree of adherence to treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating associations with characteristics of the disease and with the degree of adherence perceived by health professionals. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients with CF monitored at a Program for Adults with CF. The degree of adherence was evaluated using a questionnaire. Patients were divided into two groups: greater degree of adherence and moderate/poor degree of adherence. Clinical data, Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score, Brasfield radiographic score and spirometry data were obtained for all patients. Results: Out of 38 patients studied, 31 (81.6%) were classified as presenting a greater degree of adherence and 7 (18.4%) as presenting a moderate/poor degree of adherence. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated with the clinical score (r = −0.36, p = 0.028). The self-reported patient adherence score (median = 0.79) was higher than that perceived by health professionals (median = 0.71, p = 0.003). A greater degree of adherence was self-reported for respiratory therapy (by 84.2%), exercise (by 21.1%), prescribed diet (by 65.8%), pancreatic enzymes (by 96.3%), vitamins (by 79.4%), inhaled antibiotic therapy (by 76.7%) and inhaled DNase (by 79.4%). Conclusions: Self-reported adherence of patients attending a Program for Adults with CF was good. The self-reported patient adherence score correlated inversely with the clinical score. Self-reported patient adherence was greater than the adherence perceived by health professionals.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Therapeutics.

 


Bacteriological analysis of induced sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the clinical practice of a general tertiary hospital

Análise bacteriológica do escarro induzido para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar na prática clínica de um hospital geral terciário

Sabrina Bollmann Garcia, Christiano Perin, Marcel Muller da Silveira, Gustavo Vergani, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1092-1099

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Objective: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity of bacteriological analyses in induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to identify the clinical characteristics associated with the confirmed diagnosis, as well as to determine the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy carried out when IS tests negative for AFB in smear microscopy. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study of patients suspected of having active pulmonary TB and referred to our clinic for sputum induction. We consecutively reviewed the laboratory data of all patients submitted to sputum induction between June of 2003 and January of 2006, as well as their electronic medical records. In addition, the results of the bacteriological analysis of bronchoscopic specimens collected from the patients whose AFB tests were negative in IS were reviewed. Results: Of the 417 patients included in the study, 83 (19.9%) presented IS samples that tested positive for TB (smear microscopy or culture). In the logistic regression analysis, radiological findings of cavitation (OR = 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9-7.6) and of miliary infiltrate (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.6-8.6) showed the strongest association with the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. In 134 patients, bronchoscopy was carried out after negative AFB results in IS and added 25 (64.1%) confirmed diagnoses of pulmonary TB. Conclusions: In our clinical practice, the frequency of confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary TB using IS (19.9%) was lower than that previously reported in controlled trials. Cavitation and miliary infiltrate increase the diagnostic probability of pulmonary TB using IS. The use of bronchoscopy when IS tests negative for AFB significantly increases sensitivity in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Diagnosis; Sputum.

 


Acute asthma in adults in the emergency room: clinical management in the first hour

Asma aguda em adultos na sala de emergência: o manejo clínico na primeira hora

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Alan Castoldi Medeiros, Marcelo Kurz Siqueira, Felipe Mallmann, Mariane Lacerda, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(6):297-306

Abstract PDF PT

Asthma is a disease with high prevalence in our country and around the world. Although new therapeutic approaches have been recently developed, there appears to be a worldwide increase in morbidity and mortality from asthma. In many institutions, asthma exacerbation is still a common medical emergency. Clinical evidence demonstrates that the first hour of management of acute asthma in the emergency room entails crucial decisions that could be determinant in the clinical outcome. In this non-systematic review, the authors focus on the first hour assessment and treatment of patients with acute asthma and outline an appropriate strategy for their management. Diagnosis, severity assessment, pharmacological treatment, complications, and the decision regarding the place where additional treatment will take place will be considered. It is reasonable to expect that these recommendations will help physicians make appropriate decisions about the first hour care of acute asthma in the emergency room.

 


Keywords: Asthma. Emergency medicine. Emergency treatment. Clinical procedures. Emergency medical services.

 


Early prognosis of acute asthma in the emergency room

Avaliação prognóstica precoce da asma aguda na sala de emergência

Deise Marcela Piovesan, Diego Milan Menegotto, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristine Hoffmann, Lílian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):1-9

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Objective: To evaluate clinical and pulmonary function measurements taken in the first fifteen minutes of the assessment of acute asthma in the emergency room and used for prognostic purposes. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving consecutive patients with acute asthma. Only patients who were between the ages of 12 and 55 and presented peak expiratory flow rates < or = 50% of predicted were included. Evaluations were performed upon admission, then again at 15 minutes and 4 hours after the initiation of treatment. Treatment included albuterol and ipratropium delivered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, together with 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone. Favorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow > or = 50% of predicted after 4 hours of treatment, and unfavorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow < 50% after 4 hours of treatment. Results: Favorable outcomes were seen in 27 patients, and unfavorable outcomes were seen in 24 patients. In the multivariate analysis, peak expiratory flow as percentage of predicted was identified as the variable with the highest predictive value. A peak expiratory flow > or = 40% after 15 minutes of treatment showed significant power in predicting a favorable outcome (sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 1.00, and positive predictive value = 1.00). A peak expiratory flow < 30% after 15 minutes of treatment was predictive of a poor outcome (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.93, and positive predictive value = 0.87). Conclusion: Our results suggest that measuring peak expiratory flow after 15 minutes of management in the emergency room is a useful tool for predicting outcomes in cases of acute asthma.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Acute disease; Respiratory mechanics; Prognosis; Emergency Service, Hospital; Cohort studies

 


Submaximal exercise capacity in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Capacidade submáxima de exercício em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Janice Luisa Lukrafka, Claudine Lacerda Oliveira, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):263-269

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Objective: To determine the submaximal exercise capacity of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by means of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), correlating the results with clinical score, nutritional status, radiographic score, and pulmonary function tests. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving patients aged 16 or older enrolled in a program for adults with CF. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, determination of maximal respiratory pressures, 6MWT, spirometry, and chest X-ray. Results: The study comprised 41 patients. The mean age was 23.7 ± 6.5 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 55.1 ± 27.8%. On the 6MWT, 30 (73.2%) of the patients covered a distance (mean, 556.7 ± 76.5 m) that was less than the predicted normal value. The distance walked did not correlate significantly with body mass index, clinical score, radiographic score, maximal respiratory pressures, peripheral oxygen saturation at rest, desaturation during the 6MWT, sensation of dyspnea, or fatigue, although it did so with age at diagnosis, FEV1 in liters, and forced vital capacity in liters. Worsening of pulmonary function was associated with greater desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusion: This study showed that most patients attending an adult CF program had reduced submaximal exercise capacity. The 6MWT can be valuable for identifying patients who might experience oxygen desaturation and physical impairment in daily activities.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 


Clinical characteristics and evolution of non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis

Características clínicas e evolução de pacientes imunocomprometidos não HIV com diagnóstico intra-hospitalar de tuberculose

Denise Rossato Silva, Diego Millán Menegotto, Luis Fernando Schulz, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(4):-

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Objective: To investigate the characteristics of and risk factors for mortality among non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis. Methods: This was a two-year, retrospective cohort study of patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of tuberculosis. The predictive factors for mortality were evaluated. Results: During the study period, 337 hospitalized patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis, and 61 of those patients presented with immunosuppression that was unrelated to HIV infection. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis was found in 47.5% of cases. In the latter group, the in-hospital mortality rate was 21.3%, and the mortality rate after discharge was 18.8%. One-year survival was significantly higher among the immunocompetent patients than among the HIV patients (p = 0.008) and the non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients (p = 0.015), although there was no such difference between the two latter groups (p = 0.848). Among the non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients, the only factor statistically associated with mortality was the need for mechanical ventilation. Among the patients over 60 years of age, fibrosis/atelectasis on chest X-rays and dyspnea were more common, whereas fever and consolidations were less common. Fever was also less common among the patients with neoplasms. The time from admission to the initiation of treatment was significant longer in patients over 60 years of age, as well as in those with diabetes and those with end-stage renal disease. Weight loss was least common in patients with diabetes and in those using corticosteroids. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of classic symptoms, the occurrence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the delayed initiation of treatment, and the high mortality rate reflect the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of tuberculosis in non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients.

 


Keywords: Hospitalization; Immunosuppression; Risk factors; Tuberculosis/mortality; Immunocompromised host.

 


Diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductanceregulator gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis

Contribuição da análise molecular do gene regulador da condutância transmembrana nafibrose cística na investigação diagnóstica de pacientes com suspeita de fibrose cística leveou doença atípica

Vinícius Buaes Dal'Maso, Lucas Mallmann, Marina Siebert, Laura Simon,Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):181-189

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Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic contribution of molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in patients suspected of having mild or atypical cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescents and adults aged ≥ 14 years. Volunteers underwent clinical, laboratory, and radiological evaluation, as well as spirometry, sputum microbiology, liver ultrasound, sweat tests, and molecular analysis of the CFTR gene. We then divided the patients into three groups by the number of mutations identified (none, one, and two or more) and compared those groups in terms of their characteristics. Results: We evaluated 37 patients with phenotypic findings of CF, with or without sweat test confirmation. The mean age of the patients was 32.5 ± 13.6 years, and females predominated (75.7%). The molecular analysis contributed to the definitive diagnosis of CF in 3 patients (8.1%), all of whom had at least two mutations. There were 7 patients (18.9%) with only one mutation and 26 patients (70.3%) with no mutations. None of the clinical characteristics evaluated was found to be associated with the genetic diagnosis. The most common mutation was p.F508del, which was found in 5 patients. The combination of p.V232D and p.F508del was found in 2 patients. Other mutations identified were p.A559T, p.D1152H, p.T1057A, p.I148T, p.V754M, p.P1290P, p.R1066H, and p.T351S. Conclusions: The molecular analysis of the CFTR gene coding region showed a limited contribution to the diagnostic investigation of patients suspected of having mild or atypical CF. In addition, there were no associations between the clinical characteristics and the genetic diagnosis.

 


Palavras-chave: Fibrose cística/diagnóstico; Fibrose cística/genética; Regulador de condutância transmembrana em fibrose cística.

 


Asthma control, lung function, nutritional status, and health-related quality of life: differences between adult males and females with asthma

Controle da asma, função pulmonar, estado nutricional e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde: diferenças entre homens e mulheres adultos com asma

Gabriele Carra Forte1,a, Maria Luiza Hennemann2,b, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin1,3,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):273-278

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Objective: To evaluate health-related quality of life in asthma patients treated at a referral center in southern Brazil, identifying differences between male and female patients, as well as to evaluate differences between the males and females in terms of asthma control, lung function, and nutritional status. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age treated at an asthma outpatient clinic. We evaluated clinical parameters, lung function, nutritional status, and quality of life. Results: A total of 198 patients completed the study. The mean age was 56.2 ± 14.8 years, and 81.8% were female. The proportion of patients with uncontrolled asthma was higher among females than among males (63.0% vs. 44.4%; p = 0.041). The body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat were higher in females than in males (30.2 ± 5.8 kg/m2 vs. 26.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and 37.4 ± 6.4% vs. 26.5 ± 7.4%; p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Quality of life was lower in females than in males in the following domains: symptoms (3.8 ± 1.5 vs. 4.6 ± 1.7; p = 0.006); activity limitation (3.6 ± 1.3 vs. 4.4 ± 1.5; p = 0.001); emotional function (3.6 ± 1.9 vs. 4.5 ± 1.7; p = 0.014); and environmental stimuli (3.2 ± 1.6 vs. 4.3 ± 1.9; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Male asthma patients appear to fare better than do female asthma patients in terms of health-related quality of life, asthma control, BMI, percentage of body fat, and comorbidities.

 


Keywords: Asthma; Nutritional status; Quality of life; Adult.

 


Six-minute walk distance is not related to quality of life in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

Distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos não se relaciona com qualidade de vida em pacientes com bronquiectasias não fibrocísticas

Patrícia Santos Jacques, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Dora Veronisi Palombini, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):346-355

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Objective: To evaluate physical performance on the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and to investigate its relationship with quality of life (QoL). To identify predictors of exercise performance, we also investigated whether six-minute walk distance (6MWD) is associated with clinical and spirometric findings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (age,  18 years), with at least one respiratory symptom for  2 years and an FEV1  70% of predicted. Patients underwent clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests, the 6MWT, and QoL assessment with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results: We included 70 patients (48 females). Mean age was 54.5 ± 17.7 years, and mean FEV1 was 44.9 ± 14.5% of predicted. The patients were divided into two groups: 6MWD-low (6MWD below the predicted lower limit; n = 23); and 6MWD-norm (normal 6MWD; n = 47). The following variables were significantly lower in the 6MWD-low group than in the 6MWD-norm group: age; age at diagnosis of bronchiectasis; proportion of former smokers; body mass index (BMI); FEV1% of predicted; and MEP% of predicted. There were no significant differences in the SF-36 scores between the groups. In the logistic regression model, lower age and lower BMI were significantly associated with lower 6MWD. Conclusions: In this sample, there was a high proportion of patients who had a lower than expected 6MWD. Although 6MWD was not related to QoL, it was associated with age and BMI.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 


Effect of a clinical protocol on the management of acute asthma in the emergency room of a university hospital

Efeito da implantação de um protocolo assistencial de asma aguda no serviço de emergência de um hospital universitário

Pérsio Mariano da Rocha, Andréia Kist Fernandes, Fernando Nogueira, Deise Marcela Piovesan, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristina Hoffmann, Carísi Anne Polanczyk, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):94-101

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Background: There is a wide variability in clinical practice for treating acute asthma (AA) in the emergency room (ER) interfering in the quality of management. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a clinical protocol for care of acute asthma in the ER of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Method: In this hospital a cross-sectional study was conducted before and after implementation of the protocol, of consecutive patients presenting with acute asthma in the adult ER (age ³ 12 years). The intention was to measure the effect of recommendations on the objective assessment of severity, utilization of diagnostic tools, proposed therapy, not recommended therapy and on the outcomes. Results: The pre-protocol group comprised 108 patients and the protocol group comprised 96 patients. There was a significant increase in the use of pulse oximetry (8% to 77%, p<0.001) and PEFR (5% to 21%, p<0.001). There was an increase in the utilization of radiology (33% to 66%, p<0.001) and in that of blood tests (11% to 25%, p=0.016). There was also an increase in the number of patients receiving the three recommended nebulizations in the first hour (22% to 36%, p=0.04). Although the overall use of corticosteroids did not change, there was a significant increase in the use of oral steroids (8% to 28%, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the not recommended therapy, time of stay and outcomes. Conclusion: The acute asthma clinical protocol used in the ER was associated to a positive effect on the objective assessment of severity of asthma and on the use of the recommended therapy. No other significant influence on the treatment or on the outcome was perceived.

 


Keywords: Clinical protocols. Asthma. Emergency medicine.

 


Effects of an outpatient education program in patients with uncontrolled asthma

Efeitos de um programa educativo ambulatorial em pacientes com asma não controlada

Carmen Denise Borba Rodrigues, Rosemary Petrik Pereira, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):272-279

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of an outpatient education program in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Methods: This was an uncontrolled study evaluating an educational intervention and involving patients with uncontrolled asthma ≥ 14 years of age. The participants completed a questionnaire designed to assess the level of asthma control, the inhalation technique, and quality of life. All of the patients underwent pulmonary function testing, after which they participated in an education program consisting of one 45-min face-to-face session, followed by phone interviews at two, four, and eight weeks. The participants were reevaluated after three months. Results: Sixty-three patients completed the study. There was a significant improvement in the level of asthma control (p < 0.001). Of the 63 patients, 28 (44.4%) and 6 (9.5%) were classified as having partially controlled asthma and controlled asthma, respectively. The mean FEV1 was 63.0 ± 20.0% and 68.5 ± 21.2% of the predicted value prior to and after the educational intervention, respectively (p = 0.002), and all of the quality of life scores improved (p < 0.05 for all). The same was true for the proportion of patients prior to and after the educational intervention using the proper inhalation technique when using metered dose inhalers (15.4% vs. 46.2%; p = 0.02) and dry powder inhalers (21.3% vs. 76.6%; p < 0.001). The logistic regression analysis revealed that an incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was independently associated with a favorable response to the educational intervention. Conclusions: This study suggests that an outpatient education program for asthma patients improves the level of asthma control, lung function parameters, and quality of life. An incorrect inhalation technique identified during the first evaluation was predictive of a favorable response to the educational intervention.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention and control; Quality of life; Respiratory function tests; Ambulatory care; Health education.

 


Septic pulmonary embolism secondary to jugular thrombophlebitis: a case of Lemierre's syndrome

Embolia pulmonar séptica secundária à tromboflebite jugular: um caso de síndrome de Lemierre

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Ricardo Albaneze, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Josi Vidart, Nei Gulcó

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(12):1079-1083

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Abstract Lemierre's syndrome is characterized by acute oropharyngeal infection, complicated by internal jugular venous thrombosis secondary to septic thrombophlebitis, and by metastatic infections in various distant organs-most commonly in the lungs. We report a case of Lemierre's syndrome in a 56-year-old female who presented with right-sided neck mass and fever. Right internal jugular venous thrombosis was demonstrated on an ultrasound. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple opacities throughout both lungs. An open surgical biopsy was performed due to suspicion of pulmonary metastases. Anatomopathological examination revealed septic emboli in lung parenchyma. Retrospectively, the patient reported a history of pharyngitis two weeks prior to hospitalization. After the diagnosis had been made, the patient was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics (cefuroxime for 7 days and azithromycin for 5 days; subsequently, because fever persisted, cefepime for 7 days). One month later, a computed tomography scan of the chest revealed resolution of the opacities.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary embolism; Lung abscess; Thrombophlebitis; Jugular veins; Pharyngitis.

 


Factors associated with malnutrition in adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Fatores associados à desnutrição em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Gabriela Cristofoli Barni1, Gabriele Carra Forte1, Luis Felipe Forgiarini1,2, Claudine Lacerda de Oliveira Abrahão3, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin1,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):337-343

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition in patients attending an adult cystic fibrosis (CF) program and to investigate the associations of malnutrition with the clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients with clinically stable CF patients (16 years of age or older). The patients underwent clinical assessment, nutritional assessments, pulmonary function tests, and pancreatic function assessment. They also completed a questionnaire regarding diet compliance. On the basis of their nutritional status, the patients were classified divided into three groups: adequate nutrition; at nutritional risk; and malnutrition. Results: The study has included 73 patients (mean age, 25.6 ± 7.3 years), 40 of whom (54.8%) were female. The mean body mass index was 21.0 ± 3.0 kg/m2 and the mean FEV1 was 59.7 ± 30.6% of predicted. In this sample of patients, 32 (43.8%), 23 (31.5%), and 18 (24.7%) of the patients were allocated to the adequate nutrition, nutritional risk, and malnutrition groups, respectively. The logistic regression analysis identified three independent factors associated with the risk of malnutrition: Shwachman-Kulczycki score, percent predicted FEV1; and age. Conclusions: Malnutrition remains a common complication in adolescents and adults with CF, despite dietary advice. Malnutrition is associated with age, clinical severity, and lung function impairment.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Malnutrition; Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency; Respiratory function tests.

 


Factors related to the incorrect use of inhalers by asthma patients

Fatores relacionados ao uso incorreto dos dispositivos inalatórios em pacientes asmáticos

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denis Maltz Grutcki, Paola Paganella Laporte, Paula Borges de Lima, Samuel Millán Menegotto, Rosemary Petrik Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):13-20

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Objective: To evaluate inhaler technique in outpatients with asthma and to determine associations between the correctness of that technique and the level of asthma control. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients ≥ 14 years of age with physician-diagnosed asthma. The patients were recruited from the Asthma Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The patients completed two questionnaires (a general questionnaire and an asthma control questionnaire based on the 2011 Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines), demonstrated their inhaler technique, and performed pulmonary function tests. Incorrect inhaler technique was defined as the incorrect execution of at least two of the predefined steps. Results: We included 268 patients. Of those, 81 (30.2%) showed incorrect inhaler technique, which was associated with poor asthma control (p = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis identified the following factors associated with incorrect inhaler technique: being widowed (OR = 5.01; 95% CI, 1.74-14.41; p = 0.003); using metered dose inhalers (OR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.35-1.85; p < 0.001); having a monthly family income < 3 times the minimum wage (OR = 2.67; 95% CI, 1.35-1.85; p = 0.008), and having ≥ 2 comorbidities (OR = 3.80; 95% CI, 1.03-14.02; p = 0.045). Conclusions: In the sample studied, incorrect inhaler technique was associated with poor asthma control. Widowhood, use of metered dose inhalers, low socioeconomic level, and the presence of ≥ 2 comorbidities were associated with incorrect inhaler technique.

 


Keywords: Inaladores dosimetrados; Inaladores de pó seco; Asma/terapia.

 


Cystic fibrosis in adults: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

Fibrose cística no adulto: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Fernando Antônio de Abreu e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):107-117

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Once considered a childhood disease, cystic fibrosis is now also a disease of adults. Increased longevity has resulted in the aging of the cystic fibrosis population. The consequent age-related medical problems among adults with cystic fibrosis have increased medical care needs. These needs are being met by a growing number of non-pediatric pulmonologists and other non-pediatric specialists. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge about diagnosis and treatment in adult cystic fibrosis. In most cases, the diagnosis is suggested by manifestations of chronic sinopulmonary disease and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The diagnosis is confirmed by a positive sweat test result. Adult patients may, however, present pancreatic sufficiency and atypical clinical features, sometimes in combination with normal or borderline sweat test results. In such cases, identifying cystic fibrosis mutations and measuring nasal potential difference can have diagnostic utility. The standard therapeutic approach to pulmonary disease includes the use of antibiotics, airway clearance, exercise, mucolytics, bronchodilators, oxygen therapy, anti-inflammatory agents and nutritional support. Appropriate application of these therapies results in most cystic fibrosis patients surviving into adulthood with an acceptable quality of life.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Diagnosis; Therapeutics; Mucoviscidosis.

 


Respiratory therapy: a problem among children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.

Fisioterapia respiratória: um problema de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Taiane dos Santos Feiten1, Josani Silva Flores2, Bruna Luciano Farias3, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder2,3, Eunice Gus Camargo4, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin2,5, Bruna Ziegler1,2

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(1):29-34

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Objective: To evaluate the level of self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to ascertain whether the different levels of adherence correlate with pulmonary function, clinical aspects, and quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The patients and their legal guardians completed a questionnaire regarding adherence to physical therapy recommendations and a CF quality of life questionnaire. We collected demographic, spirometric, and bacteriological data, as well as recording the frequency of hospitalizations and Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) clinical scores. Results: We included 66 patients in the study. Mean age, FEV1 (% of predicted), and BMI were 12.2 ± 3.2 years, 90 ± 24%, and 18.3 ± 2.5 kg/m2, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups: high-adherence (n = 39) and moderate/poor-adherence (n = 27). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age, gender, family income, and total S-K clinical scores. There were statistically significant differences between the high-adherence group and the moderate/poor-adherence group, the latter showing lower scores for the "radiological findings" domain of the S-K clinical score (p = 0.030), a greater number of hospitalizations (p = 0.004), and more days of hospitalization in the last year (p = 0.012), as well as lower scores for the quality of life questionnaire domains emotion (p = 0.002), physical (p = 0.019), treatment burden (p < 0.001), health perceptions (p = 0.036), social (p = 0.039), and respiratory (p = 0.048). Conclusions: Low self-reported adherence to physical therapy recommendations was associated with worse radiological findings, a greater number of hospitalizations, and decreased quality of life in pediatric CF patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Physical therapy modalities; Quality of life.

 


Impact of a short-term educational intervention on adherence to asthma treatment and on asthma control

Impacto de uma intervenção educacional de curta duração sobre a adesão ao tratamento e controle da asma

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Denis Maltz Grutcki, Paola Paganella Laporte, Paula Borges de Lima, Vinícius Pellegrini Viana, Glauco Luís Konzen, Samuel Millán Menegotto, Mariana Alves Fonseca, Rosemary Petrik Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):19-27

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Objective: To evaluate the effect of a short-term individualized education program on adherence to asthma treatment, inhalation techniques, and asthma control. Methods: A prospective study involving patients aged 14 years or older, with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma and recruited from the asthma outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The study was conducted in two phases (before and after the educational intervention). At a routine medical visit, the participants completed a general questionnaire in order to assess the level of asthma control and inhalation techniques. The participants also underwent pulmonary function testing. Subsequently, they participated in an asthma education program, which consisted of one individualized session. The participants were reevaluated after three months. Results: Of the 174 patients recruited, 115 completed the study. Between the first and second evaluations, there was a significant improvement in the effective use of inhaled corticosteroids (90.4% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.003), the effective use of long-acting β2 agonists (57.4% vs. 63.5%; p < 0.0001), the effective use of a combined regimen with these two medications (57.4% vs. 62.6%; p < 0.0001), and the self-reported adherence to corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of patients visiting ERs (30.4% vs. 23.5%; p = 0.012). However, the level of asthma control and the inhalation technique did not improve significantly (p = 0.095 and p = 0.512, respectively). Conclusions: This short-term asthma education program resulted in an improvement in the use of medications for asthma control and a decrease in the number of ER visits, although it had no significant effect on the inhalation technique.

 


Keywords: Ambulatory care; Patient education as topic; Respiratory therapy; Metered dose inhalers.

 


Incidence of viral infection of the respiratory tract in acute asthma patients treated in the emergency room

Incidência de infecção viral do trato respiratório em asma aguda atendida em sala de emergência

Ivete Terezinha Machado da Rocha, Diego Menegotto, Cristine Feliciati Hoffmann, Sergio Saldanha Menna-Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Selir Maria Straliotto, Suzie Hyona Kang, Lilian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Fabiane Nieto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):382-389

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Objective: To evaluate the incidence of viral infection in patients with acute asthma treated in the emergency room. Methods: We conducted a cohort study of patients aged 12 and older presenting to the emergency room of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre with acute asthma. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected, and antigens were detected through indirect immunofluorescence staining for respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and influenza, as well as for parainfluenza types 1, 2, 3 and 4. Data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, medical history, the attack that led to the current emergency room visit, and clinical outcomes. Results: From March to July of 2004, 49 patients were examined for viral infection of the respiratory tract. Respiratory viruses were identified in 6 patients (3 with adenovirus, 2 with influenza A, 1 with parainfluenza type 1). The mean age of the patients with viral infection of the respiratory tract was 61.7 ± 11.5 years, compared with 41.7 ± 20.9 years for the patients without such infection (p = 0.027). There were no other significant differences in clinical characteristics or outcomes. Conclusion: The incidence of viral infection of the respiratory tract in acute asthma patients 12 years and older treated in an emergency room was 12.2%, which confirms that viral infection is a significant precipitant of acute asthma for patients in this age bracket.

 


Keywords: Emergency Service, Hospital; Vírus diseases/prevention & control; Asthma; Respiratory tract infections; Influenza A virus, human

 


Chronic bacterial infection and echocardiographic parameters indicative of pulmonary hypertension in patients with cystic fibrosis

Infecção bacteriana crônica e indicadores ecocardiográficos de hipertensão pulmonar em pacientes com fibrose cística

Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Bruna Ziegler, Lilian Rech Pasin, Antônio Fernando Furlan Pinotti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):461-467

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Objectives: To examine the relationship between chronic bacterial infection and pulmonary hypertension, using Doppler echocardiography, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study involving CF patients (≥ 16 years of age) admitted to a program for adults with the disease. The study included 40 patients with a mean age of 23.7 ± 6.3 years. Patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays and sputum cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia. Results: In terms of the following variables, no significant differences were found between P. aeruginosapositive patients and P. aeruginosa-negative patients: clinical score (p = 0.472); forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; p = 0.693); radiological score (p = 0.760); tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV, p = 0.330); diameter of the right ventricle (DRV, p = 0.191); and right ventricular/pulmonary artery (RV/PA) systolic acceleration time (SAT, p = 0.330). B. cepacia-positive patients presented significantly lower FEV1 than did B. cepacia-negative patients (p = 0.011). No significant differences were found between B. cepacia-positive patients and B. cepacia-negative patients regarding the following variables: clinical score (p = 0.080); radiological score (p = 0.760); TRV (p = 0.613); DRV (p = 0.429); and RV/PA SAT (p = 0.149). Conclusions: Chronic infection with P. aeruginosa or B. cepacia presented no association with pulmonary hypertension in adult CF patients. Pulmonary function was worse in B. cepacia-positive patients than in P. aeruginosa-positive patients.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Bacterial infections; Hypertension, pulmonary; Echocardiography, Doppler.

 


Respiratory patterns in spirometric tests of adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis

Padrões ventilatórios na espirometria em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):854-859

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Objective: To evaluate spirometric patterns of respiratory disorders and their relationship with functional severity and maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study including adolescents and adults with CF. All of the patients were submitted to spirometry. Patients were classified as having preserved respiratory function, obstructive lung disease (OLD), OLD with reduced FVC, presumptive restrictive lung disease (RLD) or mixed obstructive and restrictive lung disease (MORLD). Maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes were assessed using FEF25-75%, FEF75% and FEF75%/FVC. We included 65 normal subjects, also submitted to spirometry, as a control group. Results: The study group included 65 patients: 8 (12.3%) with preserved lung function; 18 (27.7%) with OLD; 24 (36.9%) with OLD and reduced FVC; 5 (7.7%) with presumptive RLD; and 10 (15.4%) with MORLD. The FEV1 was significantly lower in the OLD with reduced FVC group and the MORLD group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). In the patients with preserved respiratory function, FEF25-75% and FEF75% were significantly reduced in 1 patient, as was FEF75%/FVC in 2 patients. Conclusions: The respiratory pattern was impaired in 88% of the patients with CF. The most common pattern was OLD with reduced FVC. The degree of functional impairment was greater in the OLD with reduced FVC group and in the MORLD group than in the other groups. Maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes were impaired in a low percentage of patients with preserved respiratory function.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Spirometry; Maximal expiratory flow-volume curves.

 


Perception of disease severity in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Percepção da gravidade da doença em pacientes adultos com fibrose cística

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Greice Rampon, Lílian Rech Pasin, Sinara Corrêa Becker, Gretchem Mesquita Ramon, Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):27-34

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Objective: To evaluate the perception of disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating its relationship with clinical score, radiographic score, respiratory function tests, adherence to treatment and perception of self-care practices. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional study involving CF patients treated in a program for adults with CF. The perception of disease severity, adherence to treatment and reported self-care practices were evaluated by means of questionnaires. Clinical data, Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score, Brasfield radiographic score and spirometry were obtained for all of the patients. Results: Of the 38 patients studied, 3 (7.9%) patients rated their perception of health status as well below average; 5 (13.2%), as below average; 15 (39.5%), as average; 10 (26.3%), as above average; and 5 (13.2%), as well above average. The perception of disease severity correlated significantly with clinical score (r = 0.43, p = 0.007), FVC (r = 0.34, p = 0.034), FEV1 (r = 0.38, p = 0.019) and self-care practices (r = 0.33, p = 0.044), but not with degree of adherence (r = -0.03, p = 0.842) and radiographic score (r = 0.33, p = 0.51). Conclusions: The perception of disease severity correlated with objective measurements of disease severity (clinical score and respiratory function tests) and with reported self-care practices, but not with adherence to treatment.

 


Keywords: Severity of illness index; Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Respiratory function tests.

 


Epidemiological aspects of respiratory symptoms treated in the emergency room of a tertiary care hospital

Perfil epidemiológico dos atendimentos de emergência por sintomas respiratórios emum hospital terciário

Denise Rossato Silva, Vinícius Pellegrini Viana, Alice Mânica Müller, Ana Cláudia Coelho,Gracieli Nadalon Deponti, Fernando Pohlmann Livi, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):164-172

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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms as the motive for emergency room visits by adult and pediatric patients, describing the major clinical syndromes diagnosed and the outcomes of the patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in the emergency room of a tertiary care university hospital. Between November of 2008 and November of 2009, we reviewed the total number of emergency room visits per day. Children and adults who presented with at least one respiratory symptom were included in the study. The electronic medical records were reviewed, and the major characteristics of the patients were recorded. Results: During the study period, there were 37,059 emergency room visits, of which 11,953 (32.3%) were motivated by respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of emergency room visits due to respiratory symptoms was 28.7% and 38.9% among adults and children, respectively. In adults, the rates of hospitalization and mortality were 21.2% and 2.7%, respectively, compared with 11.9% and 0.3%, respectively, in children. Among the adults, the time from symptom onset to emergency room visit correlated positively with the need for hospitalization (p < 0.0001), the length of the hospital stay (p < 0.0001), and the mortality rate (p = 0.028). Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms as the motive for emergency room visits by adult and pediatric patients. Our results could inform decisions regarding the planning of prevention measures. Further epidemiological studies are needed in order to clarify the risk factors for severe respiratory symptoms.

 


Palavras-chave: Serviço hospitalar de emergência; Doenças respiratórias; Infecções respiratórias; Sinais e sintomas respiratórios.

 


Predictors of oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test in patients with cystic fibrosis

Preditores da dessaturação do oxigênio no teste da caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Claudine Lacerda Oliveira, Sandra Jungblut Schuh, Fernando Abreu e Silva, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):957-965

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Objective: To identify the predictive factors of oxygen desaturation during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients with CF aged ≥ 10 years. The patients were submitted to nutritional evaluations, oral glucose tolerance tests, pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays and 6MWTs. Results: The study included 88 patients (43 females and 45 males; mean age, 19.9 ± 7.2 years; mean FEV1, 65.4 ± 28.4%). We observed oxygen desaturation in 13 patients (OD+ group) and no oxygen desaturation in 75 (OD− group). In comparison with OD− group patients, OD+ group patients presented higher mean age (p = 0.004), worse clinical score (p < 0.001), worse radiological score (p < 0.001), higher incidence of glucose intolerance (p = 0.004), lower incidence of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection (p < 0.001), higher incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection (p = 0.016), higher incidence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection (p = 0.008), lower mean resting SpO2 (p < 0.001) and lower mean FEV1 (p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT correlated with resting SpO2 (OR = 0.305, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (OR = 0.882, p = 0.025). The parameters maximizing the predictive value for oxygen desaturation were resting SpO2 < 96% and FEV1 < 40%. In this sample, 15% of the patients with CF aged ≥ 10 years presented oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT. Conclusions: Resting SpO2 < 96% and FEV1 < 40% can predict oxygen desaturation during the 6MWT.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Exercise tolerance.

 


Prevalence of pulmonary hypertension evaluated by Doppler echocardiography in a population of adolescent and adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Prevalência de hipertensão pulmonar avaliada por ecocardiografia Doppler em uma população de pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Bruna Ziegler, Antônio Fernando Furlan Pinotti, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):83-90

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), to compare clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, pulmonary function, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with and without PH, and to correlate echocardiographic findings with clinical characteristics, radiographic scores, and pulmonary function. Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study involving clinically stable patients (aged 16 or older) enrolled in an adult CF program. The patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, Doppler echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and chest X-rays. Results: Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was obtained in 37 of the 40 patients studied. The prevalence of PH was 49% with a TRV cut-off of 2.5 m/s (18 patients) and 30% with a TRV cut-off of 2.8 m/s (11 patients). Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) at rest, clinical score, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC) were significantly lower in the group with PH. The TRV was found to correlate significantly with SpO2 at rest (p < 0.001), clinical score (p < 0.001), radiographic score (p = 0.030), FEV1 in liters (p < 0.001) and in % of predicted (p < 0.001), and FCV in liters (p = 0.008) and in % of predicted (p = 0.001). The single best predictor of TRV was SpO2 at rest (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The high prevalence of PH in the CF patients studied suggests that PH should be considered in the evaluation and follow-up treatment of such patients. The best predictor of PH was SpO2 at rest.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Tricuspid valve/physiopathology; Hypertension, pulmonary; Echocardiography, Doppler.

 


Relationship between functional and X-ray alterations in patients with cystic fibrosis

Relação entre alterações funcionais e radiológicas em pacientes com fibrose cística

Andréia Kist Fernandes, Felipe Mallmann, Ângela Beatriz John, Carlo Sasso Faccin, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(4):196-201

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease marked by airway inflammation and airflow obstruction, resulting in air trapping in the lungs. Objective: To assess the associations between airflow limitation, pulmonary volume and X-ray findings in patients with cystic fibrosis. Method: A cross-sectional retrospective study. Review of spirometric, plethysmographic, and chest X-ray findings of outpatients (age ³ 16 years). The airflow findings were classified as within normal limits or as airflow obstruction: mild, moderate or severe obstructive alteration. Results: A total of 23 patients (15 male and eight female; mean age, 21 ± 5.9 years) were studied. Six of them were within normal limits, four had a mild, five had a moderate, and eight had a severe obstructive alteration. There was an association between airflow limitation and the increase of residual volume (p = 0.006) and also with the Brasfield score (p = 0.001), but not with the total lung capacity (p = 0.33). There was a correlation between residual volume and Brasfield score (r = 0,73, p = 0,002), but not with the total pulmonary capacity. Moreover, according to X-ray criteria, the air trapping was correlated only with the residual volume (p = 0.006). Conclusion: In patients with cystic fibrosis (age ³ 16 years), the progressive airflow limitation is accompanied by an increase in residual volume, while the total pulmonary capacity remains normal or tends to decrease. The X-ray score was associated with airflow limitation and residual volume, but not with total lung capacity.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis. Pulmonary disease. Lung volume measurements. Radiography, thoracic.

 


Author's reply

Resposta dos autores

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):291-292

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Chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis in cystic fibrosis: update on diagnosis and treatment

Rinossinusite crônica e polipose nasossinusal na fibrose cística: atualização sobre diagnóstico e tratamento

Suzie Hyeona Kang, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Otavio Bejzman Piltcher, Raphaella de Oliveira Migliavacca

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(1):65-76

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Although cystic fibrosis (CF) is an irreversible genetic disease, advances in treatment have increased the life expectancy of CF patients. Upper airway involvement, which is mainly due to pathological changes in the paranasal sinuses, is prevalent in CF patients, although many are only mildly symptomatic (with few symptoms). The objective of this literature review was to discuss the pathophysiology and current therapeutic management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in CF patients. The review was based on current evidence, which was classified in accordance with the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. When symptomatic, CRS with nasal polyps can affect quality of life and can lead to pulmonary exacerbations, given that the paranasal sinuses can be colonized with pathogenic bacteria, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection with P. aeruginosa plays a crucial role in morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation in CF patients. Although clinical treatment of the upper airways is recommended as initial management, this recommendation is often extrapolated from studies of CRS in the general population. When sinonasal disease is refractory to noninvasive therapy, surgery is indicated. Further studies are needed in order to gain a better understanding of upper airway involvement and improve the management of CRS in CF patients, with the objective of preserving lung function and avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures.

 


Keywords: Nose diseases; Cystic fibrosis; Nasal polyps; Paranasal sinuses; Sinusitis.

 


Tuberculosis in hospitalized patients: clinical characteristics of patients receiving treatment within the first 24 h after admission

Tuberculose em pacientes hospitalizados: características clínicas dos pacientes que iniciaram tratamento nas primeiras 24 h de permanência hospitalar

Denise Rossato Silva, Larissa Pozzebon da Silva, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):279-285

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Objective: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients hospitalized for tuberculosis, comparing those in whom tuberculosis treatment was started within the first 24 h after admission with those who did not. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving new tuberculosis cases in patients aged ≥ 18 years who were hospitalized after seeking treatment in the emergency room. Results: We included 305 hospitalized patients, of whom 67 (22.0%) received tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission (≤24h group) and 238 (88.0%) did not (>24h group). Initiation of tuberculosis treatment within the first 24 h after admission was associated with being female (OR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.06-3.74; p = 0.032) and with an AFB-positive spontaneous sputum smear (OR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.94-9.00; p < 0.001). In the ≤24h and >24h groups, respectively, the ICU admission rate was 22.4% and 15.5% (p = 0.258); mechanical ventilation was used in 22.4% and 13.9% (p = 0.133); in-hospital mortality was 22.4% and 14.7% (p = 0.189); and a cure was achieved in 44.8% and 52.5% (p = 0.326). Conclusions: Although tuberculosis treatment was initiated promptly in a considerable proportion of the inpatients evaluated, the rates of in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation use remained high. Strategies for the control of tuberculosis in primary care should consider that patients who seek medical attention at hospitals arrive too late and with advanced disease. It is therefore necessary to implement active surveillance measures in the community for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hospitalization; Time-to-treatment; Emergency medicine; Delayed diagnosis.

 


Severe tuberculosis requiring ICU admission

Tuberculose grave com necessidade de internação em UTI

Denise Rossato Silva, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):386-394

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Tuberculosis is a curable disease that can evolve to severe forms, requiring the treatment of the patients in an ICU, especially if there is a delay in the diagnosis or if it affects elderly patients, those on dialysis, or those with HIV infection or other states of immunosuppression, as well as in cases of multidrug resistant disease. Knowledge of the radiological presentation of the cases can help diagnose these severe forms, as can the introduction of new tests, such as the early detection of the etiological agent by PCR and chest CT, which favors the early initiation of treatment. In addition, the use of regimens without isoniazid and rifampin, as well as uncertain enteral absorption and low serum concentrations of antituberculosis drugs, can reduce the efficacy of treatment. For such patients, the prognosis is generally poor and mortality rates are high.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Respiratory insufficiency; Respiration, artificial; Hospitalization.

 


Pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer: simultaneous and sequential occurrence

Tuberculose pulmonar e câncer de pulmão: ocorrência simultânea ou sequencial

Denise Rossato Silva, Dirceu Felipe Valentini Junior, Alice Mânica Müller, Carlos Podalirio Borges de Almeida, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(4):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death and represents a major public health problem worldwide. Another major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries, is tuberculosis. The simultaneous or sequential occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis and LC in the same patient has been reported in various case series and case-control studies. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients developing tuberculosis and LC, either simultaneously or sequentially. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on the review of medical charts. Results: The study involved 24 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and LC between 2009 and 2012. The diagnoses of tuberculosis and LC occurred simultaneously in 10 patients, whereas tuberculosis was diagnosed prior to LC in 14. The median time between the two diagnoses was 5 years (interquartile range: 1-30 years). Fourteen patients (58.3%) were male, 20 (83.3%) were White, and 22 (91.7%) were smokers or former smokers. The most common histological type was adenocarcinoma, identified in 14 cases (58.3%), followed by epidermoid carcinoma, identified in 6 (25.0%). Seven patients (29.2%) presented with distant metastases at diagnosis; of those 7 patients, 5 (71%) were diagnosed with LC and tuberculosis simultaneously. Conclusions: In the present study, most of the patients with tuberculosis and LC were smokers or former smokers, and tuberculosis was diagnosed either before or simultaneously with LC. Non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, was the most common histological type.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Lung neoplasms/diagnosis; Comorbidity.

 


Lung ultrasound in critically ill patients: a new diagnostic tool

Ultrassom pulmonar em pacientes críticos: uma nova ferramenta diagnóstica

Felippe Leopoldo Dexheimer Neto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Cassiano Teixeira, Flávia Gabe Beltrami

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):246-256

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The evaluation of critically ill patients using lung ultrasound, even if performed by nonspecialists, has recently garnered greater interest. Because lung ultrasound is based on the fact that every acute illness reduces lung aeration, it can provide information that complements the physical examination and clinical impression, the main advantage being that it is a bedside tool. The objective of this review was to evaluate the clinical applications of lung ultrasound by searching the PubMed and the Brazilian Virtual Library of Health databases. We used the following search terms (in Portuguese and English): ultrasound; lung; and critical care. In addition to the most relevant articles, we also reviewed specialized textbooks. The data show that lung ultrasound is useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates, having good accuracy in identifying consolidations and interstitial syndrome. In addition, lung ultrasound has been widely used in the evaluation and treatment of pleural effusions, as well as in the identification of pneumothorax. This technique can also be useful in the immediate evaluation of patients with dyspnea or acute respiratory failure. Other described applications include monitoring treatment response and increasing the safety of invasive procedures. Although specific criteria regarding training and certification are still lacking, lung ultrasound is a fast, inexpensive, and widely available tool. This technique should progressively come to be more widely incorporated into the care of critically ill patients.

 


Keywords: Ultrasonography; Lung; Critical care; Intensive care units.

 


Variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects assessed through inspiratory resistive loading

Variabilidade da percepção da dispneia medida através de um sistema de cargas resistivas inspiratórias em indivíduos saudáveis

Bruna Ziegler, Andréia Kist Fernandes, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Glauco Luís Konzen, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(2):143-150

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Objective: Few studies have evaluated the variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of the perception of dyspnea in healthy subjects during breathing against increasing inspiratory resistive loads, as well as to assess the association between the level of perception of dyspnea and the level of physical activity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving healthy individuals 16 years of age or older. Subjects underwent inspiratory resistive loading testing, in which the level of perception of dyspnea was quantified with the modified Borg scale. We also determined body mass indices (BMIs), assessed maximal respiratory pressures, performed pulmonary function tests, applied the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)-long form, and conducted six-minute walk tests (6MWTs). The level of perception of dyspnea was classified as low (Borg score < 2), intermediate (Borg score, 2-5), or high (Borg score > 5). Results: We included 48 healthy subjects in the study. Forty-two subjects completed the test up to a load of 46.7 cmH2O/L/s. The level of perception of dyspnea was classified as low, intermediate, and high in 13, 19, and 10 subjects, respectively. The level of perception of dyspnea was not significantly associated with age, gender, BMI, IPAQ-long form score, maximal respiratory pressures, or pulmonary function test results. Conclusions: The scores for perceived dyspnea induced by inspiratory resistive loading in healthy subjects presented wide variability. The perception of dyspnea was classified as low in 31% of the subjects, intermediate in 45%, and high in 24%. There was no association between the level of perception of dyspnea and the level of physical activity (IPAQ or six-minute walk distance).

 


Keywords: Dyspnea; Respiratory function tests; Exercise test.

 


 

 


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