Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma

Apneia obstrutiva do sono e asma

Cristina Salles, Regina Terse-Ramos, Adelmir Sousa-Machado, Álvaro A Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(5):604-612

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma.

 



Association between severe asthma and changes in the stomatognathic system

Associação entre asma grave e alterações do sistema estomatognático

Mayra Carvalho-Oliveira1,2, Cristina Salles3, Regina Terse4, Argemiro D'Oliveira Júnior2,5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(6):423-428

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe orofacial muscle function in patients with severe asthma. Methods: This was a descriptive study comparing patients with severe controlled asthma (SCA) and severe uncontrolled asthma (SUA). We selected 160 patients, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and the 6-item Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6), as well as undergoing evaluation of orofacial muscle function. Results: Of the 160 patients evaluated, 126 (78.8%) and 34 (21.2%) presented with SCA and SUA, respectively, as defined by the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria. Regardless of the level of asthma control, the most frequent changes found after evaluation of muscle function were difficulty in chewing, oronasal breathing pattern, below-average or poor dental arch condition, and difficulty in swallowing. When the sample was stratified by FEV1 (% of predicted), was significantly higher proportions of SUA group patients, compared with SCA group patients, showed habitual open-mouth chewing (24.8% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.02), difficulty in swallowing water (33.7% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.04), and voice problems (81.2% vs. 51.9%; p < 0.01). When the sample was stratified by ACQ-6 score, the proportion of patients showing difficulty in swallowing bread was significantly higher in the SUA group than in the SCA group (66.6% vs. 26.6%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The prevalence of changes in the stomatognathic system appears to be high among adults with severe asthma, regardless of the level of asthma control. We found that some such changes were significantly more common in patients with SUA than in those with SCA.

 


Keywords: Speech/physiology; Stomatognathic system/physiopathology; Asthma/complications; Deglutition disorders; Mastication/physiology.

 


Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

Hipoxemia noturna em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Regina Terse Trindade Ramos, Maria Angélica Pinheiro Santana, Priscila de Carvalho Almeida, Almério de Souza Machado Júnior, José Bouzas Araújo-Filho, Cristina Salles

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):667-674

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. Results: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75  6.29 vs. 86.38  8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = −0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = −0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). Conclusions: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index.

 


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Sleep; Oximetry.

 


Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia

Prevalência da apneia obstrutiva do sono em crianças e adolescentes portadores da anemia falciforme

Cristina Salles, Regina Terse Trindade Ramos, Carla Daltro, Andréa Barral, Jamocyr Moura Marinho, Marcos Almeida Matos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(11):1075-1083

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA); to investigate the possible correlation between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 90%, as well as between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 80%; and to investigate the possible correlation between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and painful crisis. Methods: The study involved 85 patients with SCA. The patients completed a questionnaire, were submitted to polysomnography and underwent clinical evaluation (by a pediatrician and an otolaryngologist). An AHI > 1 was considered indicative of a diagnosis of OSAS. Results: The prevalence of OSAS was 10.6%. We found a negative correlation between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% (r = −0.343; p = 0.002), as well as between mean annual hemoglobin level and total sleep time with SpO2 < 80% (r = −0.270; p = 0.016). There was no association between AHI and painful crisis. Conclusions: The prevalence of OSAS in this population was high (10.6%). Therefore, it is important to identify signs of OSAS as soon as possible and to determine the mean annual hemoglobin level because of the inverse correlation between that level and the total sleep time with SpO2 < 90% or < 80%.

 


Keywords: Prevalence; Sleep apnea, obstructive; Anemia, sickle cell; Polysomnography; Sleep apnea syndromes.

 


 

 


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