Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Indoor air quality, Act 3,523 of the Ministry of Health and Brazilian standards for biological indoor air contaminants

Ambientes climatizados, portaria 3.523 de 28/8/98 do Ministério da Saúde e padrões de qualidade do ar de interiores do Brasil

Paulo Pinto Gontijo Filho, Carlos Roberto Menezes Silva, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(5):254-258

Abstract PDF PT

This article reviews Act 3,523 of the Brazilian Ministry of Health which regulates the indoor air quality of air-conditioned environments, focusing mainly on biological standards for contaminant particles. Additionally, a concise analysis on nosocomial air-borne infections is performed, as well as on nosocomial units where air-borne infectious diseases may be important and a special ventilation system is required. Detailed analysis of the most common biological contaminant particles, differences between countries of both Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the aspects of the methodology used to perform their analysis are considered. The authors conclude that there are no established standards for safe levels of air-borne organisms, and that there is no available data in Brazil to set up standards for biological contaminant particles

 


Keywords: Air pollutants. Air conditioning. Air quality standards. Indoor air pollution. Brazil.

 


Sequential analysis as a tool for detection of amikacin ototoxicity in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Análise sequencial como ferramenta na detecção da ototoxicidade da amicacina no tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos1, Silvana Maria Monte Coelho Frota2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto3, Afrânio Lineu Kritski4

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):85-92

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objetivo: Verificar a detecção precoce de ototoxicidade causada pelo uso de amicacina numa população tratada para tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) por meio da realização de três testes distintos: audiometria tonal liminar (ATL), audiometria de altas frequências (AAF) e pesquisa de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção (EOAPD). Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de coorte prospectiva incluindo pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 e 69 anos, com diagnóstico de TBMR pulmonar e que necessitaram utilizar amicacina por seis meses em seu esquema medicamentoso antituberculose pela primeira vez. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada antes do início do tratamento e depois de dois e seis meses do início do tratamento. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio de análise estatística sequencial. Resultados: Foram incluídos 61 pacientes, mas a população final foi constituída de 10 pacientes (7 homens e 3 mulheres), em razão da análise sequencial. Ao se comparar os valores das respostas dos testes com aqueles encontrados na avaliação basal, foram verificadas mudanças nos limiares auditivos compatíveis com ototoxicidade após dois meses de tratamento através da AAF e após seis meses de tratamento através da ATL. Entretanto, essas mudanças não foram verificadas através da pesquisa de EOAPD. Conclusões: Ao se considerar o método estatístico utilizado nessa população, é possível concluir que mudanças nos limiares auditivos foram associadas ao uso da amicacina no período de seis meses por meio de AAF e ATL e que a pesquisa de EOAPD não se mostrou eficiente na identificação dessas mudanças.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hearing loss; Aminoglycosides/toxicity.

 


Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Anemia em pacientes internados com tuberculose pulmonar

Marina Gribel Oliveira, Karina Neves Delogo, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes de Oliveira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):403-410

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Objective: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. Results: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0  10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Anemia; Malnutrition; Iron.

 


Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antitu-berculosis treatment

Associações entre níveis de selênio sérico e conversão de testes bacteriológicos durante o tratamento antituberculose

Milena Lima de Moraes, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Karina Neves Delogo, Pryscila Fernandes Campino Miranda, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Paulo César de Almeida, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Reinaldo Calixto Campos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):269-278

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Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4  11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

 


Keywords: Selenium; Nutritional status; Tuberculosis; Immunity.

 


Audiometric evaluation of patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis

Avaliação audiométrica de pacientes em tratamento para tuberculose pulmonar

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Silvana Frota, Marco Antonio de M Tavares de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):81-87

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Objective: To evaluate the hearing status of patients being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at referral hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study involving 97 male and female inpatients/outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age who were undergoing treatment for active pulmonary tuberculosis at one of two referral hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After being interviewed, all of the patients underwent pure tone audiometry. Results: Of the 97 patients studied, 65 (67%) were male, 52 (54%) were receiving first-line treatment, and 45 (46%) were receiving second-line treatment, which included aminoglycosides. Smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to noise, and ototoxic medication use were identified in 65 (67%), 51 (53%), 53 (55%), and 45 (46.4%) of the patients, respectively. The most common auditory and vestibular complaints were dizziness, in 28 patients (28.8%); tinnitus, in 27 (27.8%); and hypoacusis, in 23 (23.7%). Conclusions: Due to the great number of patients with hearing loss in the present study, we recommend that all patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis be submitted to auditory monitoring.

 


Keywords: Audiometry; Hearing loss; Tuberculosis; Drug toxicity.

 


Evaluating the efficiency of polymerase chain reaction in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in indigenous and non-indigenous patients

Avaliação da reação em cadeia da polimerase no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes indígenas e não indígenas

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):13-14

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Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial

Comparação do desempenho do sistema mycobacteria growth indicator tube e meio Löwenstein-Jensen na detecção de rotina de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em unidades do sistema único de saúde no Rio de Janeiro: resultados preliminares de um ensaio clínico pragmático

Adriana da Silva Rezende Moreira, Gisele Huf, Maria Armanda Vieira, Leila Fonseca, Monica Ricks, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(3):365-367

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In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/])

 


Keywords: Controlled clinical trial; Tuberculosis; Diagnostic tests, routine.

 


Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in five Brazilian capitals with a high incidence of the disease

Completude das fichas de notificações de tuberculose em cinco capitais do Brasil com elevada incidência da doença

Normeide Pedreira dos Santos, Monique Lírio, Louran Andrade Reis Passos, Juarez Pereira Dias, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(2):221-225

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms in the greater metropolitan areas of five Brazilian capitals where the incidence of tuberculosis was high in 2010-Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, Cuiabß, Porto Alegre, and BelÚm-using tabulations obtained from the Sistema Nacional de InformaþÒo de Agravos de NotificaþÒo (National Case Registry Database). The degree of completeness was highest in Porto Alegre and Cuiabß, whereas it was lowest in Rio de Janeiro, where there are more reported cases of tuberculosis than in any other Brazilian capital. A low degree of completeness of these forms can affect the quality of the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Control Program, which will have negative consequences for health care and decision-making processes.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Public health surveillance; Disease notification.

 


Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNF-á (-238/-308) gene among TB and nom TB patients: Susceptibility markers of TB occurrence?

Distribuição de Polimorfismos de Base única (SNPs) no gene de TNF-a (-238/-308) entre pacientes com TB e outras pneumopatias: marcadores genéticos de susceptibilidade a ocorrência de TB?

Martha Maria de Oliveira; Jocilea C. S. da Silva; Joseane F. Costa; Lúcia Helena Amim; Carla C. S. Loredo; Hedi Melo; Luiz F. Queiroz; Fernanda C. Q. Mello; José Roberto Lapa e Silva; Afrânio Lineu Kritski; Adalberto Rezende Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):461-467

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Background: Host genetic factors may play a role in the susceptibility to active tuberculosis (TB), and several polymorphisms in different cytokine coding genes have been described and associated with diseases to date. Objectives: To investigate whether polymorphisms within the promoter region of the TNF-á (-238/-308) coding genes are associated to the occurrence of active TB. Methods: SNPs within the TNF-á gene were analyzed by PCR-RFLP among two groups of individuals: patients with TB (n = 234, and patients non TB (n = 113). Results: In this study, the presence of the -238A allele was associated with susceptibility to TB disease occurrence and severity (p = 0,00002; OR = 0,15; IC = 0,06-0,36. On the contrary, the -308A allele was associated with protection to the occurrence of another pulmonary diseases. Conclusions: These results suggest the importance of genetics studies on TB occurrence. Further studies are needed pursuing a better understanding of the human pathogenesis of M. tb.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/genetics. Polymorphism, single nucleotide/genetics. Tumor necrosis factor/genetics. Alleles. Genotype. Lung diseases.

 


Pleural fluid adenosine deaminase detection for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

Dosagem da atividade da adenosina deaminase no líquido pleural para o diagnóstico da tuberculose pleural

Morrys Casagrande Kaisemann, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Maria de Fátima C Pereira, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(6):549-556

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Background: The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Histopathological examination of pleural tissue is the most accurate method, with a sensitivity of up to 80%. Determination of adenosine deaminase levels is a recently introduced method, although its usefulness in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in Brazil has yet to better elucidated. Objective: To verify the sensitivity and specificity of an experimental method of measuring adenosine deaminase activity in pleural fluid in a series of patients with pleural effusion patients evaluated between August 1998 and November 2002 in Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Results: Out of 137 cases, 111 pleural fluid samples were available. Of those, 83 were from pleural tuberculosis patients. Among the 67 pleural tuberculosis patients tested, 10 (14.9%) presented human immunodeficiency virus. The adenosine deaminase cutoff value of 35U/L was determined by a receiver operator characteristic curve. The sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios (positive and negative) were 92.8%, 93.3%, 25.8 and 13.9, respectively. Mean adenosine deaminase in the pleural tuberculosis group was 84.7 ± 43.1 U/L, versus 15.9 ± 11.1 U/L in the group with other diseases. There was no significant difference in adenosine deaminase activity between patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Conclusions: Adenosine deaminase measurement in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis and its use can preclude the need for pleural biopsy in the initial workup of pleural effusion patients. An adenosine deaminase cutoff value of 35U/L is recommended.

 


Keywords: Pleural fluid. Adenosine deaminase. Diagnosis. Tuberculosis. HIV

 


Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis emergence: a renewed challenge

Emergência de tuberculose resistente: renovado desafio

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):157-158

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Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis among patients seeking medical attention at referral clinics for tuberculosis

Fatores associados à tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes que procuraram serviços de saúde de referência para tuberculose

Cid Carlos Soares de Alcântara, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Valéria Goes Ferreira, Mônica Cardoso Façanha, Ricardo Soares Pontes, Rosa Salani Mota, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva Leitão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):622-629

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Objective: The identification of behavioral and clinical factors that are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis might improve the detection and treatment of the disease, thereby reducing its duration and transmission. Our objective was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors that are associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between April of 2008 and March of 2009 at three health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. We selected 233 patients older than 14 years of age who spontaneously sought medical attention and presented with cough for ≥ 2 weeks. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected. Sputum smear microscopy for AFB and mycobacterial culture were also carried out, as were tuberculin skin tests and chest X-rays. The patients were divided into two groups (with and without pulmonary tuberculosis). The categorical variables were compared by the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression analysis when the variables were considered significant. Results: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 41.2%. The unadjusted OR showed that the following variables were statistically significant risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: fever (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.34-4.30), anorexia (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 2.03-6.75), and weight loss (OR = 3.37; 95% CI, 1.76-6.62). In the multivariate analysis, only weight loss (OR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.78-6.14) was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions: In areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, weight loss could be used as an indicator of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic cough for ≥ 2 weeks.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Risk factors.

 


Fatores de risco para tuberculose multirresistente adquirida

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(2):55-56

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Incidence of TB diagnosed in the emergency room of a teaching hospital in southeastern Brazil

Incidência de TB diagnosticada no pronto-atendimento de um hospital escola na região sudeste do Brasil

Silvana Spíndola de Miranda, Ana Rita de Paiva Toledo, Simone Rodrigues Ribeiro, Izabela Magalhães Campos, Petra Maria de Oliveira Duarte Sthur, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(2):174-178

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In this study, we analyzed the number of TB cases in an emergency room (ER) and the susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Patients were selected from among those treated at the Hospital das Clínicas, in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Between 2002 and 2005, 240 TB patients were identified. Of those, 117 patients (48.7%) were diagnosed in the ER, 72 (61.5%) presenting positive sputum smear microscopy. Drug susceptibility testing was carried out in 90 strains, of which 80 (89%) were sensitive, 9 (10%) were resistant, and 1 (1%) was multidrug resistant. The incidence of positive smear sputum microscopy and resistant TB strains was high, which calls for the immediate adoption of TB control measures in the ER.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Disease transmission, infectious; Drug resistance.

 


Participation of researchers from the Brazilian Network of Tuberculosis Research in the activities of the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology, official publication of the Brazilian Society of Pulmonology and Phthisiology

Incorporação de atores da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisa em TB nas atividades do Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):394-397

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Indicators related to delays in diagnosis and in implementation of measures to control airborne infection among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary-care hospital

Indicadores relacionados ao retardo no diagnóstico e na instituição das precauções para aerossóis entre pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar bacilífera em um hospital terciário

Mariângela Ribeiro Resende, Verônica Maria Sinkoc, Márcia Teixeira Garcia, Eliane Oliveira de Moraes, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Priscila Maria de Oliveira Papaiordanou

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):225-230

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Background: The risk for nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis exists in health care institutions. Objective: To evaluate indicators of transmission risk among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at a university hospital. Method: A retrospective study covering the January 1997 to September of 1999 period and evaluating patients admitted to the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas with pulmonary tuberculosis. Three intervals were determined: from admission to collection of sputum for acid-fast bacilli microscopy; from admission to implementation of airborne infection control measures; from sputum collection to the initiation of treatment. Results: The final sample included 63 cases. Concomitant human immunodeficiency virus-positivity was found in 31.7%. Forty patients (63.5%) were admitted through the emergency room. In 42 (66.7%) patients, TB was suspected at admission. The interval between admission and sputum collection exceeded 12 hours in 27.5% of cases admitted through the emergency room and in 30.4% of those admitted directly to wards (p = 0.803). Delayed respiratory isolation occurred in 31 cases (49.2%). The delay in isolation was correlated to no diagnosis of tuberculosis at admission (p < 0.000) and lower bacillary load in the sputum (p = 0.032). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (p = 0.530), hospitalization ward (p = 0.284) and underlying diseases (p = 0.541) were not correlated with delayed isolation. The interval between sputum collection and initiation of treatment was greater than 24 hours in 15.9% of the cases. Conclusion: Delayed isolation was observed in many cases. Policies of continuing education are called for, especially in high-risk areas.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis. Infection Control. Brazil. Delay. Diagnosis.

 


Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica

Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Carla Conceição dos Santos Loredo, Danielle Novelo de Souza, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):144-148

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Background: Tuberculin purified protein derivative is stored in vials of various sizes. Its adsorption to the vial can influence the results of tuberculin tests. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vial size on the results obtained in tuberculin tests. Methods: Sixty-four inpatients with active tuberculosis were submitted to two simultaneous tuberculin tests using the Mantoux technique. Patients were randomly allocated to receive two 0.1-ml injections, either one in the right forearm from a 1.5-ml vial and one in the left forearm from a 5-ml vial or vice versa. Induration was determined in a blinded fashion by a single, previously trained observer. Right arm-left arm differences of 2 mm or less were considered concordant results. Results: Twenty-one patients presented no induration and were excluded from analysis. Among the 42 remaining patients, mean induration diameters obtained in tuberculin tests using the larger vials were greater than those obtained in tests using the smaller vials. Concordance was achieved in 40.5% (17/42). The difference was negative (large-vial indurations smaller than small-vial indurations) in 16.7% (7/42) and positive in 42.9% (18/42). Conclusions: The size of the vial may influence tuberculin test results. Adsorption to the sides of the vial may explain this phenomenon. The authors caution others to be aware of the impact of these variations in epidemiological and operational studies.

 


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculin Skin Test. Tuberculin. Adsorption. PPD. Mantoux.

 


Inflammatory and immunogenetic markers in correlation with pulmonary tuberculosis

Marcadores inflamatórios e imunogenéticos e sua relação com tuberculose pulmonar

Beatriz Lima Alezio Muller, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Paula Fernanda Gonçalves dos Santos, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(6):719-727

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Objective: To describe serum levels of the cytokines IL-10, TNF-, and IFN-, as well as polymorphisms in the genes involved in their transcription, and their association with markers of the acute inflammatory response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving 81 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis treated at two referral hospitals. We collected data on sociodemographic variables and evaluated bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of antituberculosis treatment, gene polymorphisms related to the cytokines studied, and serum levels of those cytokines, as well as those of C-reactive protein (CRP). We also determined the ESR and CD4+ counts. Results: The median age of the patients was 43 years; 67 patients (82.7%) were male; and 8 patients (9.9%) were infected with HIV. The ESR was highest in the patients with high IFN- levels and low IL-10 levels. IFN- and TNF- gene polymorphisms at positions +874 and −238, respectively, showed no correlations with the corresponding cytokine serum levels. Low IL-10 levels were associated with IL-10 gene polymorphisms at positions −592 and −819 (but not −1082). There was a negative association between bacteriological conversion at the eighth week of treatment and CRP levels. Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic markers and markers of acute inflammatory response are useful in predicting the response to antituberculosis treatment

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Cytokines; Immune system; Polymorphism, single nucleotide.

 


Perfil dos pacientes portadores de Mycobacterium SP

Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(6):338-339

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Epidemiological profile of hospitalized patients with TB at a referral hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes portadores de TB internados em um hospital de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Rossana Coimbra Brito, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):780-787

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Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of inpatients at a TB referral hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study of the medical charts of patients with TB hospitalized at the Hospital Estadual Santa Maria (HESM), in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January of 2002 and December of 2003. Data were collected using a standardized form. Results: Of the 451 patients included in the study, 313 (69.4%) had been referred to the HESM from health care clinics, and 302 (67.0%) were male. Most of the patients were in the 30-59  year age bracket, 443 (98.2%) lived in the greater metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, and 298 (66.1%) lived in the city of Rio de Janeiro itself. The most common reason for hospitalization was poor health status (in 237, 52.5%). The most common comorbidity was AIDS (in 137, 30.4%). The most common signs and symptoms at admission were weight loss, fever and productive cough. Sputum smear microscopy was positive in 122 (71.0%) of the patients presenting with productive cough at admission. Of the 212 patients being retreated, 156 (73.6%) reported noncompliance with previous treatment. Regarding the outcome, 273 (65.8%) of the patients were referred to municipal health care centers, 83 (18.4%) died, 44 (9.8%) were cured, and 27 (6%) were discharged against medical advice. Conclusions: Providing hospitals specializing in TB is relevant for TB control, especially in metropolitan regions. In addition to taking biosafety measures, these hospitals must be prepared to treat patients with TB-related comorbidities and social problems. This study has resulted in improvements at the HESM.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Hospitalization.

 


Predictors of mortality among intensive care unit patients coinfected with tuberculosis and HIV

Preditores de mortalidade em pacientes da unidade de terapia intensiva coinfectados por tuberculose e HIV

Marcia Danielle Ferreira1,2,a, Cynthia Pessoa das Neves1,3,b, Alexandra Brito de Souza3,c, Francisco Beraldi-Magalhães1,3,d, Giovanni Battista Migliori4,e, Afrânio Lineu Kritski5,f, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos1,3,g

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):118-124

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Objective: To identify factors predictive of mortality in patients admitted to the ICU with tuberculosis (TB)/HIV coinfection in the Manaus, Amazon Region. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of TB/HIV coinfected patients over 18 years of age who were admitted to an ICU in the city of Manaus, Brazil, between January of 2011 and December of 2014. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed. To identify factors predictive of mortality, we employed a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: During the study period, 120 patients with TB/HIV coinfection were admitted to the ICU. The mean age was 37.0 ± 11.7 years. Of the 120 patients evaluated, 94 (78.3%) died and 62 (66.0%) of those deaths having occurred within the first week after admission. Data on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and ARDS were available for 86 and 67 patients, respectively Of those 86, 75 (87.2%) underwent IMV, and, of those 67, 48 (71.6%) presented with ARDS. The factors found to be independently associated with mortality were IMV (p = 0.002), hypoalbuminemia (p = 0.013), and CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (p = 0.002). Conclusions: A high early mortality rate was observed among TB/HIV coinfected ICU patients. The factors predictive of mortality in this population were IMV, hypoalbuminemia, and severe immunosuppression.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Critical care; Respiration, artificial; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

 


Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners

Prevalência da infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis em pessoas privadas de liberdade

Pedro Daibert de Navarro1,2, Isabela Neves de Almeida1, Afrânio Lineu Kritski3, Maria das Graças Ceccato4, Mônica Maria Delgado Maciel1, Wânia da Silva Carvalho4, Silvana Spindola de Miranda5

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(5):348-355

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. Results: A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Conclusions: Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system.

 


Keywords: Prisons; Tuberculin test; Latent tuberculosis, HIV.

 


Prevalence of tuberculin skin testing among medical students in Campos School of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro

Prevalência da prova tuberculínica positiva entre alunos da Faculdade de Medicina de Campos (RJ)

Luiz Clovis Parente Soares; Fernanda C. Queiroz Mello; Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):440-447

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Background: The Hospital Ferreira Machado, utilized, in part, as a clinical training center for graduate students from the Faculdade de Medicina de Campos, admitted 65 tuberculosis (TB) patients in 2001. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) among medical students during distinct periods of their training and to identify and analyze correlated factors. To compare positivity rates, taking into account the booster effect, and estimate incidence of positive TST by class year. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 students registered in the first semester of 2002. Using a structured and validated questionnaire, data regarding demographics, BCG vaccination and potential exposure to TB patients were obtained. A professional licensed by the Health Department administered the TSTs, and the twostep Mantoux method (PPD Rt23) was used. Results: Of the 500 eligible subjects, 316 (63.2%) were excluded. Analysis showed increasing two-step TST positivity rates corresponding to extent of clinical experience (4%, 6.4% and 13.1%) and a tendency toward correlation with professional level. The highest percentage of positive TSTs was found during the period of clinical training, which corresponded to the time of greatest exposure to patients (1000 hours). Conclusions: a) the TST positivity rate was high (7.9%) among students; b) TST was correlated with in-hospital training stage; c) evaluation of the booster effect lead us to highly recommended boosters in order to reduce the number of false-negative TST results.

 


Keywords: Tuberculin. Tuberculin test. Tuberculosis. Students/Medical. Cross-sectional studies.

 


Prevalence of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among medical students of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

Prevalência de infecção pelo "Mycobacterium tuberculosis" entre alunos da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Vania Maria Carneiro da Silva, Jaqueline R. Oliveira, Flávia Matos Silva dos Santos, Clarisse Moreira de Araújo, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(2):77-82

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: The teaching hospital, HUCFF, Southeastern Brazil, annually receives three hundred tuberculosis cases. Medical students have their practice at that hospital. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection among the students of the UFRJ School of Medicine. Design: Cross-sectional study of medical students at different levels of their training programs. Information about social and demographic characteristics, BCG vaccination history, and potential exposures to tuberculosis were obtained with a standardized questionnaire. Tuberculin skin testing was used to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis infection. Results: The prevalence of tuberculin skin testing positivity among medical students increased as they advanced to higher training levels (4.6%, 7.8%, 16.2%, respectively; P = 0.002). The risks were greatest during the years of clinical training, when medical students had more contact with patients. Conclusions: Medical students in the HUCFF/UFRJ may be at an increased risk of M. tuberculosis infection. A program of routine tuberculin skin testing, combined with interventions to confirm TST conversion and to reduce the risk of nosocomial transmission in the workplace is needed.

 


Keywords: Nosocomial infection. Medical students. Risk factors. Cross-sectional studies.

 


Works in the field of tuberculosis study published in the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology between 2004 and 2011: types of articles, study models, level of scientific evidence, and social impact

Publicações na área de tisiologia no Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia entre 2004 e 2011: tipos de artigos, modelos de estudo, grau de evidência científica e impacto social

Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):285-287

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Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated at an AIDS reference center general hospital in Rio de Janeiro

Resistência aos medicamentos anti-tuberculose de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas de pacientes atendidos em hospital geral de referência para tratamento de AIDS no Rio de Janeiro

Rossana Coimbra Brito; Celine Gounder; Dirce Bonfim de Lima; Hélio Siqueira; Hebe Rodrigues Cavalcanti; Maracy Marques Pereira; Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(4):425-432

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Background: Tuberculosis become important challenge to health care settings. Brazil has high prevalence of the disease and Rio de Janeiro has high incidence rates with 30% of cases notified at hospitals. Objective: To evaluate prevalence of initial and acquired drug resistance at a general hospital, reference for aids treatment in Rio de Janeiro and to identify associated factors. Methods: Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from 165 patients were analyzed, between August 1996 and February 1998. Results: Twenty per cent (33/165) were resistant to at least one drug; 13% (12/165) to isoniazid; 3.64% (6/ 165) to rifampin and 3.64% (6/165) to both. Among HIV seropositive subjects (52/165); 28.85% (15/52) were resistant to at least one drug. Acquired resistance occurred in 15.79% of 19 patients that mentioned previous antiTB treatment. Association statistically significant was found with non cavitation on X-ray in bivariate analyses ( P=0.05). Eighty four patients refereed no previous treatment (NPT). Resistance to 1 or more drugs was found in 28.57% (24/84) of NPT patients. Association statistically significant with initial resistance was found with health care workers (P=0.004), unemployment (P=0.03), and diarrhea (P=0.01) in bivariate analyses. On multivariate analyses, health care workers ( P=0.002) remained significantly associated with initial resistance. Conclusions: High resistance rates was found. It corroborates that hospitals needs attention for TB control especially which concerns to health care works infection.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug resistance. Disease transmission, patient to professional. Hospitals.

 


Risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among medical students at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Faculdade de Medicina

Risco de infecção pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis entre alunos da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Vania Maria Carneiro da Silva, Antônio José Ledo Alves da Cunha, Afrânio Lineu Kritski

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(5):459-466

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Introduction: There have been few Latin American studies investigating the fact that the rate of tuberculosis (TB) infection among medical students is higher than the 1.3% rate seen in the population at large. Objective: To describe the cumulative incidence and the relative risk for TB infection among medical students. Method: In 1998, a prospective cohort study was conducted involving medical students at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Faculdade de Medicina who tested negative (induration <10 mm) on the tuberculin skin test (TST). Students were tested using the two-step TST method and were retested one year later. The students tested were at two different stages in their training: pre-clinical (no contact with patients) and final year (contact with patients). Information about demographic characteristics, BCG vaccination history, and instances of potential exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Of the 575 students initially enrolled, 72% (414) completed the study. Results: The TSTs of 16 (3.9%) of the 414 students converted, representing a cumulative incidence of 3.9% (95% confidence interval = 1.06 to 12.1). Senior medical students were at an almost fourfold higher risk for M. tuberculosis infection than were those in pre-clinical training. Conclusion: The risk for TST conversion is very high in this population.

 


Keywords: PPD. Tuberculosis-infection. Tuberculin conversion. Medical students

 


Drug-resistant tuberculosis in subjects included in the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance in Porto Alegre, Brazil

Tuberculose resistente em pacientes incluídos no II Inquérito Nacional de Resistência aos Fármacos Antituberculose realizado em Porto Alegre, Brasil

Vania Celina Dezoti Micheletti, José da Silva Moreira, Marta Osório Ribeiro, Afranio Lineu Kritski, José Ueleres Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(2):-

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Objective: To describe the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among tuberculosis patients in a major Brazilian city, evaluated via the Second National Survey on Antituberculosis Drug Resistance, as well as the social, demographic, and clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods: Clinical samples were collected from tuberculosis patients seen between 2006 to 2007 at three hospitals and five primary health care clinics participating in the survey in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The samples were subjected to drug susceptibility testing. The species of mycobacteria was confirmed using biochemical methods. Results: Of the 299 patients included, 221 (73.9%) were men and 77 (27.3%) had a history of tuberculosis. The mean age was 36 years. Of the 252 patients who underwent HIV testing, 66 (26.2%) tested positive. The prevalence of MDR-TB in the sample as a whole was 4.7% (95% CI: 2.3-7.1), whereas it was 2.2% (95% CI: 0.3-4.2) among the new cases of tuberculosis and 12.0% (95% CI: 4.5-19.5) among the patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment. The multivariate analysis showed that a history of tuberculosis and a longer time to diagnosis were both associated with MDR-TB. Conclusions: If our results are corroborated by other studies conducted in Brazil, a history of tuberculosis treatment and a longer time to diagnosis could be used as predictors of MDR-TB.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Drug resistance; HIV.

 


Tuberculous uveitis at a referral center in southeastern Brazil

Uveíte por tuberculose em um centro de referência no Sudeste do Brasil

Wesley Ribeiro Campos, Juliana Fulgêncio Henriques, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, André Curi, Rosita Tomishi Pimentel, Silvana Spindola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(2):98-102

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Objective: To describe the occurrence of tuberculous uveitis (TBU) at a referral center in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: A total of 16 consecutive patients (≥15 years of age) who underwent diagnostic evaluation of uveitis between January of 2001 and July of 2004 at the Minas Gerais State Referral Center were selected for study. Demographic and clinical data, as well as data related to screening for toxoplasmosis, syphilis, and rheumatologic diseases, together with the results of tuberculin skin testing and HIV testing, were collected. Results: Of the16 patients evaluated, 11 (69%) were found to have TBU. A history of contact with pulmonary tuberculosis was reported by 8 (72%) of the 11 patients with TBU and by 1 (20%) of the 5 with non-TBU. Although the odds ratio for this association was 10.67 (95% CI: 0.59-398.66), the p value was borderline significant (p = 0.078). There was no difference between the patients with TBU and those with non-TBU in terms of the status of ocular inflammation or the tuberculin skin testing results. All of the patients were HIV negative and were monitored for two years. Conclusion: In this study, a history of contact with pulmonary tuberculosis proved to be useful in diagnosing TBU.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Uveitis; Diagnosis; Brazil.

 


 

 


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