Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Sequential analysis as a tool for detection of amikacin ototoxicity in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Análise sequencial como ferramenta na detecção da ototoxicidade da amicacina no tratamento da tuberculose multirresistente

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos1, Silvana Maria Monte Coelho Frota2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto3, Afrânio Lineu Kritski4

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):85-92

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objetivo: Verificar a detecção precoce de ototoxicidade causada pelo uso de amicacina numa população tratada para tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR) por meio da realização de três testes distintos: audiometria tonal liminar (ATL), audiometria de altas frequências (AAF) e pesquisa de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção (EOAPD). Métodos: Estudo longitudinal de coorte prospectiva incluindo pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 e 69 anos, com diagnóstico de TBMR pulmonar e que necessitaram utilizar amicacina por seis meses em seu esquema medicamentoso antituberculose pela primeira vez. A avaliação auditiva foi realizada antes do início do tratamento e depois de dois e seis meses do início do tratamento. A análise dos resultados foi realizada por meio de análise estatística sequencial. Resultados: Foram incluídos 61 pacientes, mas a população final foi constituída de 10 pacientes (7 homens e 3 mulheres), em razão da análise sequencial. Ao se comparar os valores das respostas dos testes com aqueles encontrados na avaliação basal, foram verificadas mudanças nos limiares auditivos compatíveis com ototoxicidade após dois meses de tratamento através da AAF e após seis meses de tratamento através da ATL. Entretanto, essas mudanças não foram verificadas através da pesquisa de EOAPD. Conclusões: Ao se considerar o método estatístico utilizado nessa população, é possível concluir que mudanças nos limiares auditivos foram associadas ao uso da amicacina no período de seis meses por meio de AAF e ATL e que a pesquisa de EOAPD não se mostrou eficiente na identificação dessas mudanças.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Hearing loss; Aminoglycosides/toxicity.

 


Anemia in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

Anemia em pacientes internados com tuberculose pulmonar

Marina Gribel Oliveira, Karina Neves Delogo, Hedi Marinho de Melo Gomes de Oliveira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(4):403-410

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the prevalence of anemia and of its types in hospitalized patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a descriptive, longitudinal study involving pulmonary tuberculosis inpatients at one of two tuberculosis referral hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We evaluated body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), arm muscle area (AMA), ESR, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width (RDW), as well as the levels of C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin. Results: We included 166 patients, 126 (75.9%) of whom were male. The mean age was 39.0  10.7 years. Not all data were available for all patients: 18.7% were HIV positive; 64.7% were alcoholic; the prevalences of anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia were, respectively, 75.9% and 2.4%; and 68.7% had low body weight (mean BMI = 18.21 kg/m2). On the basis of TST and AMA, 126 (78.7%) of 160 patients and 138 (87.9%) of 157 patients, respectively, were considered malnourished. Anemia was found to be associated with the following: male gender (p = 0.03); low weight (p = 0.0004); low mean corpuscular volume (p = 0.03);high RDW (p = 0; 0003); high ferritin (p = 0.0005); and high ESR (p = 0.004). We also found significant differences between anemic and non-anemic patients in terms of BMI (p = 0.04), DCT (p = 0.003), and ESR (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In this sample, high proportions of pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified as underweight and malnourished, and there was a high prevalence of anemia of chronic disease. In addition, anemia was associated with high ESR and malnutrition.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Anemia; Malnutrition; Iron.

 


Epidemiological aspects of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil from 1998 to 2003

Aspectos epidemiológicos da co-infecção tuberculose e vírus da imunodeficiência humana em Ribeirão Preto (SP), de 1998 a 2003

Jordana de Almeida Nogueira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa, Mellina Yamamura, Ricardo Arcencio, Roxana Isabel Cardozo-Gonzales

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(6):529-534

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported in the city of Ribeirão Preto between 1998 and 2003, according to patient HIV status, gender, age bracket and treatment outcome. Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study that employed the Brazilian National Tuberculosis Notification Database as an instrument of data collection. The study sample consisted of all cases of human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis co-infection occurring in residents of Ribeirão Preto and reported between 1998 and 2003. Results: During this period, 1273 new cases of tuberculosis were reported, 377 of which were in HIV-positive individuals, for a co-infection rate of 30%. Of the cases of co-infection, 76% were in men, and the majority occurred in individuals in the 20-59 age bracket. In terms of treatment outcome, cure was achieved in 52%, treatment abandonment was reported in 11%, and death occurred in 32%. The predominant clinical form of tuberculosis was the pulmonary form, which accounted for 58% of the cases. Conclusion: A high prevalence of co-infection was observed in the community studied. The treatment outcomes seen among the cases in our study sample underscore the need to adopt special strategies to monitor this clientele. Comparing the cases of tuberculosis in isolation with the cases of co-infection, no gender-related or age-related differences were observed.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; HIV infections; Comorbidity

 


Association between serum selenium level and conversion of bacteriological tests during antitu-berculosis treatment

Associações entre níveis de selênio sérico e conversão de testes bacteriológicos durante o tratamento antituberculose

Milena Lima de Moraes, Daniela Maria de Paula Ramalho, Karina Neves Delogo, Pryscila Fernandes Campino Miranda, Eliene Denites Duarte Mesquita, Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Paulo César de Almeida, Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis, Reinaldo Calixto Campos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Martha Maria de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(3):269-278

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether serum selenium levels are associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in patients diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis after eight weeks of standard treatment. Methods: We evaluated 35 healthy male controls and 35 male patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, the latter being evaluated at baseline, as well as at 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment. For all participants, we measured anthropometric indices, as well as determining serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and selenium. Because there are no reference values for the Brazilian population, we used the median of the serum selenium level of the controls as the cut-off point. At 30 and 60 days of antituberculosis treatment, we repeated the biochemical tests, as well as collecting sputum for smear microscopy and culture from the patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 38.4  11.4 years. Of the 35 patients, 25 (71%) described themselves as alcoholic; 20 (57.0%) were smokers; and 21 (60.0%) and 32 (91.4%) presented with muscle mass depletion as determined by measuring the triceps skinfold thickness and arm muscle area, respectively. Of 24 patients, 12 (39.2%) were classified as moderately or severely emaciated, and 15 (62.5%) had lost > 10% of their body weight by six months before diagnosis. At baseline, the tuberculosis group had lower serum selenium levels than did the control group. The conversion of bacteriological tests was associated with the CRP/albumin ratio and serum selenium levels 60 days after treatment initiation. Conclusions: Higher serum selenium levels after 60 days of treatment were associated with the conversion of bacteriological tests in pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

 


Keywords: Selenium; Nutritional status; Tuberculosis; Immunity.

 


Audiometric evaluation of patients treated for pulmonary tuberculosis

Avaliação audiométrica de pacientes em tratamento para tuberculose pulmonar

Karla Anacleto de Vasconcelos, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Silvana Frota, Marco Antonio de M Tavares de Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):81-87

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the hearing status of patients being treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at referral hospitals in Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive study involving 97 male and female inpatients/outpatients between 18 and 60 years of age who were undergoing treatment for active pulmonary tuberculosis at one of two referral hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. After being interviewed, all of the patients underwent pure tone audiometry. Results: Of the 97 patients studied, 65 (67%) were male, 52 (54%) were receiving first-line treatment, and 45 (46%) were receiving second-line treatment, which included aminoglycosides. Smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to noise, and ototoxic medication use were identified in 65 (67%), 51 (53%), 53 (55%), and 45 (46.4%) of the patients, respectively. The most common auditory and vestibular complaints were dizziness, in 28 patients (28.8%); tinnitus, in 27 (27.8%); and hypoacusis, in 23 (23.7%). Conclusions: Due to the great number of patients with hearing loss in the present study, we recommend that all patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis be submitted to auditory monitoring.

 


Keywords: Audiometry; Hearing loss; Tuberculosis; Drug toxicity.

 


Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

Correlatos de experimentação e consumo atual de cigarros entre adolescentes

Amanda Gimenes Bonilha, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Mayara Piani Sicchieri, Jorge Alberto Achcar, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):634-642

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. Methods: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. Results: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2  1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use; Adolescent behavior; Stress, psychological.

 


Descriptive study of the implementation and impact of the directly observed treatment, short-course strategy in the São José do Rio Preto municipal tuberculosis control program (1998-2003)

Estudo descritivo sobre a implantação da estratégia de tratamento de curta duração diretamente observado no controle da tuberculose em São José do Rio Preto e seus impactos (1998-2003)

Cláudia Eli Gazetta, Silvia Helena Fiqueiredo Vendramini, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Maria Rita de Cássia Oliveira, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(2):192-198

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe treatment outcomes (cure, noncompliance or death) after the implementation of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis control in the city of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 1998 and 2003. Methods: A descriptive study, based on secondary data (National Case Registry database, Tuberculosis Epidemiology database, and the 'Black Book' Registry), was conducted using a specific instrument. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: After the implementation of the DOTS strategy, there was a decrease in noncompliance and case detection rates as well as an increase in cure and death rates. The increase in the number of tuberculosis-related deaths might be attributable to three factors: the predominance of the disease in individuals over 50 years of age, tuberculosis/HIV co-infection, and the presence of accompanying diseases. Conclusion: The implementation of the DOTS strategy strengthened the decentralization of the tuberculosis control plans as well as the integration of the Basic Health Care Clinic teams with the Tuberculosis Control Program team. Political commitment of the administrator to tuberculosis control, in conjunction with the policy of benefits and incentives, is essential for the sustainability of the DOTS strategy.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Health services; Politics; Directly observed therapy.

 


Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica

Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Carla Conceição dos Santos Loredo, Danielle Novelo de Souza, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):144-148

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Tuberculin purified protein derivative is stored in vials of various sizes. Its adsorption to the vial can influence the results of tuberculin tests. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vial size on the results obtained in tuberculin tests. Methods: Sixty-four inpatients with active tuberculosis were submitted to two simultaneous tuberculin tests using the Mantoux technique. Patients were randomly allocated to receive two 0.1-ml injections, either one in the right forearm from a 1.5-ml vial and one in the left forearm from a 5-ml vial or vice versa. Induration was determined in a blinded fashion by a single, previously trained observer. Right arm-left arm differences of 2 mm or less were considered concordant results. Results: Twenty-one patients presented no induration and were excluded from analysis. Among the 42 remaining patients, mean induration diameters obtained in tuberculin tests using the larger vials were greater than those obtained in tests using the smaller vials. Concordance was achieved in 40.5% (17/42). The difference was negative (large-vial indurations smaller than small-vial indurations) in 16.7% (7/42) and positive in 42.9% (18/42). Conclusions: The size of the vial may influence tuberculin test results. Adsorption to the sides of the vial may explain this phenomenon. The authors caution others to be aware of the impact of these variations in epidemiological and operational studies.

 


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculin Skin Test. Tuberculin. Adsorption. PPD. Mantoux.

 


Methodology for characterizing proficiency in interpreting sputum smear microscopy results in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

Metodologia para caracterização de proficiência em leitura de resultados baciloscópicos para o diagnóstico da tuberculose

Francisco Duarte Vieira, Julia Ignez Salem, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Susana Alles de Camargo, Regina Ruivo Ferro e Silva, Lúcia Cristina Corrêa Moura, Meire Jane Vilaça, José Vitor da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(5):304-311

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To propose a methodology for characterizing proficiency in sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the number of microscopies necessary to establish this proficiency, as well as the quality of the transcription of results, the causes of the discrepancies in the readings (rater or microscope used), and the criterion for classification of microscopy results that poses the most difficulty in characterizing proficiency. Methods: Four hundred sputum smear microscopies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed through double-blind readings by six professionals who usually read/supervise microscopies performed in public health care facilities. The sample was stratified to obtain, at least, a reliability of 90% in the double-blind readings, an α error of 5%, and a precision of 3%. The results were analyzed using observed reliability and the kappa index. Results: Thirteen errors (0.27%) were found in the transcription of results. Reliability increased when the three distinct categories of positive results (AFB+, AFB++, and AFB+++) were grouped or when inconclusive results were excluded from the analysis. The quantification of the bacterial load was the classification criterion that posed the most difficulty in establishing proficiency. Using higher quality microscopes increased reliability. Reliability values stabilized only from the reading of 75 microscopies onward. Conclusions: Double-blind sputum smear microscopy readings using a panel containing 75 slides (36 negative, 4 inconclusive, and 35 positive) proved to be appropriate for characterizing proficiency in sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis when such proficiency is intended to reproduce laboratory routine.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Microscopy; Reproducibility of results.

 


Drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 2000-2006

Perfil de resistência de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, 2000-2006

Marli Marques, Eunice Atsuko Totumi Cunha, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Sonia Maria de Oliveira Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):224-231

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Methods: Descriptive study of reported tuberculosis cases in the Brazilian Case Registry Database. We included only those cases in which M. tuberculosis culture was positive and sensitivity to drugs (rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol) was tested. Löwenstein-Jensen and Ogawa-Kudoh solid media were used for cultures, as was an automated liquid medium system. Sensitivity tests were based on the proportion method. Results: Among the 783 cases evaluated, males predominated (69.7%), as did patients in the 20-49 year age bracket (70%), a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (94.4%) and positive HIV serology (8.6%); 645 (82.4%) were new cases, and 138 (17.6%) had previously been treated. Resistance to at least one drug was found in 143 cases (18.3%). The primary resistance (PR) rate was, respectively, 8.1%, 1.6%, 2.8% and 12.4%, for monoresistance, multidrug resistance (MDR), other patterns of resistance and resistance to at least one drug, whereas the acquired resistance (AR) rate was 14.5%, 20.3%, 10.9% and 45.7%, respectively, and the combined resistance (CR) rate was 9.2%, 4.9%, 4.2% and 18.3%, respectively. In PR, streptomycin was the most common drug, whereas isoniazid was the most common in AR and CR (7.2% and 3.7%, respectively). Conclusions: These high levels of resistance undermine the efforts for tuberculosis control in Mato Grosso do Sul. Acquired MDR was 12.7 times more common than was primary MDR, demonstrating that the previous use of drug therapy is an indicator of resistance. These levels reflect the poor quality of the health care provided to these patients, showing the importance of using the directly observed treatment, short course strategy, as well as the need to perform cultures and sensitivity tests for the early diagnosis of drug resistance.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Drug resistance, multiple; Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

 


Epidemiological profile of hospitalized patients with TB at a referral hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Perfil epidemiológico de pacientes portadores de TB internados em um hospital de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Hedi Marinho de Melo Guedes de Oliveira, Rossana Coimbra Brito, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):780-787

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the epidemiological profile of inpatients at a TB referral hospital. Methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study of the medical charts of patients with TB hospitalized at the Hospital Estadual Santa Maria (HESM), in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January of 2002 and December of 2003. Data were collected using a standardized form. Results: Of the 451 patients included in the study, 313 (69.4%) had been referred to the HESM from health care clinics, and 302 (67.0%) were male. Most of the patients were in the 30-59  year age bracket, 443 (98.2%) lived in the greater metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, and 298 (66.1%) lived in the city of Rio de Janeiro itself. The most common reason for hospitalization was poor health status (in 237, 52.5%). The most common comorbidity was AIDS (in 137, 30.4%). The most common signs and symptoms at admission were weight loss, fever and productive cough. Sputum smear microscopy was positive in 122 (71.0%) of the patients presenting with productive cough at admission. Of the 212 patients being retreated, 156 (73.6%) reported noncompliance with previous treatment. Regarding the outcome, 273 (65.8%) of the patients were referred to municipal health care centers, 83 (18.4%) died, 44 (9.8%) were cured, and 27 (6%) were discharged against medical advice. Conclusions: Providing hospitals specializing in TB is relevant for TB control, especially in metropolitan regions. In addition to taking biosafety measures, these hospitals must be prepared to treat patients with TB-related comorbidities and social problems. This study has resulted in improvements at the HESM.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Epidemiology; Hospitalization.

 


Performance assessment questionnaire regarding TB control for use in primary health care clinics in Brazil

Questionário para avaliação de desempenho de serviços de atenção básica no controle da TB no Brasil

Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa, Antônio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):610-612

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

The objective of this study was to provide access to and disseminate a questionnaire used as an instrument to assess the organizational elements and the performance of primary health care clinics regarding TB control in Brazil, comparing selected organizational dimensions by health care clinic, by municipality and by actor (patients, health care workers and managers). The results show that municipalities where the coverage of supervised treatment was more extensive presented more favorable indicators regarding access to TB treatment. The organizational format of the health care clinics involved in TB treatment-family health programs and referral centers with specialized teams in TB control programs (TCPs)-was not a factor that expanded access to diagnosis. The TCPs involving a smaller number of patients presented better performance regarding the health care professional-patient relationship. The majority of the patients faced economic and social difficulties, and most managers were unaware of the amount of resources allocated to TB control activities. The instrument proved to be viable and to have the potential to adequately assess the performance of health care clinics in the urban areas studied.

 


Keywords: Questionnaires; Patient satisfaction; Primary health care; Family health program; Tuberculosis.

 


Recurrence of tuberculosis

Recidiva da tuberculose

Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):27-28

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Smoking, health and education

Tabagismo, saúde e educação

Renata Carone Sborgia, Antonio Ruffino-Netto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(4):371-372

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Frequency of indeterminate results from an interferon-gamma release assay among HIV-infected individuals

Taxa de resultados indeterminados de ensaio de liberação de interferon-gama entre pessoas infectadas pelo HIV

Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira1,2, Anete Trajman3,4, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago1, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro1,2, Antonio Ruffino-Netto5, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel6, Julio Croda2,7, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida8

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):215-218

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and factors associated with indeterminate interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods: We tested 81 PLWHA in the central-west region of Brazil, using the tuberculin skin test and an IGRA. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables was gathered through the use of questionnaires and from medical records. The association of those variables with indeterminate results was analyzed by calculating the adjusted ORs in a multivariate logistic regression model. Concordance was evaluated by determining the kappa statistic. Results: Among the 81 patients evaluated, the tuberculin skin test results were positive in 18 (22.2%) of the patients, and the IGRA results were positive in 10 (12.3%), with a kappa of 0.62. The IGRA results were indeterminate in 22 (27.1%) of the patients (95% CI: 17.8-38.1%). The odds of obtaining indeterminate results were significantly higher in smokers (adjusted OR = 6.0; 95% CI: 1.4-26.7) and in samples stored for less than 35 days (adjusted OR = 14.0; 95% CI: 3.1-64.2). Patients with advanced immunosuppression (CD4+ T-cell count < 200 cells/mm3) were at a higher risk for indeterminate results (OR adjusted for smoking and inadequate duration of sample storage = 4.7; 95% CI: 0.91-24.0), although the difference was not significant. Conclusions: The high prevalence of indeterminate results can be a major limitation for the routine use of IGRAs in PLWHA. The need to repeat the test increases its costs and should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness studies. The processing of samples can significantly alter the results.

 


Keywords: Interferon-gamma release tests; Interferon-gamma; Tuberculosis; HIV; Latent tuberculosis; Tuberculin test.

 


Tuberculin skin test: operational research in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Teste tuberculínico: pesquisa operacional no Mato Grosso do Sul

Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Antônio Ruffino-Netto, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Olcinei Alves de Oliveira, Marli Marques, Rivaldo Venâncio da Cunha, Renato Andreotti

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(5):646-654

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate operational aspects of tuberculin skin test (TST) use in tuberculosis control programs and at specialized Brazilian National Sexually Transmitted Diseases/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Program health care clinics in priority municipalities for tuberculosis control in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey. Data on qualifications/training of professionals administering TSTs, timing of the TST, procedures in cases of loss to follow-up (reading), material availability, and material storage were collected through interviews and technical visits. For the 2008-2009 period, we determined the numbers of screenings in vulnerable populations, of TSTs performed, and of patients treated for latent tuberculosis. Results: We interviewed 12 program managers in six municipalities. Some programs/clinics did not perform TSTs. Nursing teams administered the TSTs, results were read by non-specialists, and specialization/refresher courses were scarce. The PPD RT23 was stored in 5-mL flasks under appropriate conditions. Insulin syringes were commonly used. Testing was available during business hours, three times a week. In cases of loss to follow-up, telephone calls or home visits were made. Of the 2,305 TSTs evaluated, 1,053 (46%) were performed in indigenous populations; 831 (36%) were screenings in prisons, performed for training; and only 421 (18%) involved contacts of tuberculosis patients or vulnerable populations. Four vulnerable patients and 126 indigenous subjects were treated for latent tuberculosis. Conclusions: These priority municipalities showed operational difficulties regarding human resources, materials, and data records.

 


Keywords: Tuberculin test; Health services research; HIV; Latent tuberculosis; Chemoprevention.

 


 

 


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