Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Can the six-minute walk distance predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil?

A distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos pode predizer a ocorrência de exacerbações agudas da DPOC em pacientes brasileiros?

Fernanda Kazmierski Morakami, Andrea Akemi Morita, Gianna Waldrich Bisca, Josiane Marques Felcar, Marcos Ribeiro, Karina Couto Furlanetto, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Fabio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(4):280-284

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether a six-minute walk distance (6MWD) of < 80% of the predicted value can predict the occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD in patients in Brazil over a 2-year period. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 50 COPD patients in Brazil. At enrollment, anthropometric data were collected and patients were assessed for pulmonary function (by spirometry) and functional exercise capacity (by the 6MWD). The patients were subsequently divided into two groups: 6MWD ≤ 80% of predicted and 6MWD > 80% of predicted. The occurrence of acute exacerbations of COPD over 2 years was identified by analyzing medical records and contacting patients by telephone. Results: In the sample as a whole, there was moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 = 41 ± 12% of predicted) and the mean 6MWD was 469 ± 60 m (86 ± 10% of predicted). Over the 2-year follow-up period, 25 patients (50%) experienced acute exacerbations of COPD. The Kaplan-Meier method showed that the patients in whom the 6MWD was ≤ 80% of predicted were more likely to have exacerbations than were those in whom the 6MWD was > 80% of predicted (p = 0.01), whereas the Cox regression model showed that the former were 2.6 times as likely to have an exacerbation over a 2-year period as were the latter (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In Brazil, the 6MWD can predict acute exacerbations of COPD over a 2-year period. The risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD within 2 years is more than twice as high in patients in whom the 6MWD is ≤ 80% of predicted.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Risk groups; Exercise.

 


Analysis of three different equations for predicting quadriceps femoris muscle strength in patients with COPD

Análise de três diferentes fórmulas de predição de força muscular do quadríceps femoral em pacientes com DPOC

Aline Gonçalves Nellessen¹, Leila Donária¹, Nidia Aparecida Hernandes¹, Fabio Pitta¹

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(4):305-312

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare equations for predicting peak quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle force; to determine the agreement among the equations in identifying QF muscle weakness in COPD patients; and to assess the differences in characteristics among the groups of patients classified as having or not having QF muscle weakness by each equation. Methods: Fifty-six COPD patients underwent assessment of peak QF muscle force by dynamometry (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of knee extension). Predicted values were calculated with three equations: an age-height-weight-gender equation (Eq-AHWG); an age-weight-gender equation (Eq-AWG); and an age-fat-free mass-gender equation (Eq-AFFMG). Results: Comparison of the percentage of predicted values obtained with the three equations showed that the Eq-AHWG gave higher values than did the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, with no difference between the last two. The Eq-AHWG showed moderate agreement with the Eq-AWG and Eq-AFFMG, whereas the last two also showed moderate, albeit lower, agreement with each other. In the sample as a whole, QF muscle weakness (< 80% of predicted) was identified by the Eq-AHWG, Eq-AWG, and Eq-AFFMG in 59%, 68%, and 70% of the patients, respectively (p > 0.05). Age, fat-free mass, and body mass index are characteristics that differentiate between patients with and without QF muscle weakness. Conclusions: The three equations were statistically equivalent in classifying COPD patients as having or not having QF muscle weakness. However, the Eq-AHWG gave higher peak force values than did the Eq-AWG and the Eq-AFFMG, as well as showing greater agreement with the other equations.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Quadriceps muscle; Reference values.

 


Pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis

Função pulmonar e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com doença renal crônica submetidos à hemodiálise

Demetria Kovelis, Fábio Pitta, Vanessa Suziane Probst, Celeide Pinto Aguiar Peres, Vinicius Daher Alvares Delfino, Altair Jacob Mocelin, Antônio Fernando Brunetto

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(11):907-912

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in chronic renal failure patients, correlating these variables with hemodialysis-related weight fluctuation; to study the correlation between the duration of hemodialysis and potential respiratory alterations. Methods: Seventeen patients (median age, 47 years; interquartile range, 41-52 years), submitted to three weekly hemodialysis sessions for a median of 27 months (interquartile range, 14-55) were evaluated. Twelve of the patients were male. The patients underwent spirometry. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were measured prior to and after the first hemodialysis session of the week. Body weight was quantified prior to and after each of the three weekly sessions. Results: Before the first hemodialysis session of the week, 8 patients presented mild restrictive defect, which normalized after the session in 2 of those patients. After dialysis, there was a significant increase in forced vital capacity (p = 0.02) and a significant decrease in body weight (p = 0.0001). Weight fluctuation over 3 days without hemodialysis tended to correlate with the variation in forced vital capacity in the first weekly session (r = 0.47; p = 0.055). Duration of hemodialysis correlated with predialysis MIP (r = −0.3; p = 0.03) and MEP (r = −0.63; p = 0.006). Conclusions: More pronounced weight gain in the interdialytic period is associated with worsening of lung function, which is almost fully reversible by hemodialysis. In addition, longer duration of hemodialysis is associated with decreased respiratory muscle strength.

 


Keywords: Spirometry; Respiratory muscles/physiopathology; Kidney failure, chronic; Renal dialysis.

 


Profile of the level of physical activity in the daily lives of patients with COPD in Brazil

Perfil do nível de atividade física na vida diária de pacientes portadores de DPOC no Brasil

Nidia Aparecida Hernandes, Denilson de Castro Teixeira, Vanessa Suziane Probst, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Fábio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(10):949-956

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in COPD patients in Brazil, correlating those characteristics with physiological variables. Methods: Physical activities in daily life were evaluated in 40 COPD patients (18 males; 66 ± 8 years of age; FEV1 = 46 ± 16 % of predicted; body mass index = 27 ± 6 kg/m2) and 30 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects, using a multiaxial accelerometer-based sensor for 12 h/day on two consecutive days. We also assessed maximal and functional exercise capacity, using the incremental exercise test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), respectively; MIP and MEP; peripheral muscle force, using the one-repetition maximum test and the handgrip test; quality of life, using the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); functional status, using the London Chest Activity of Daily Living questionnaire; and dyspnea sensation, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Results: Mean walking time/day was shorter for COPD patients than for the controls (55 ± 33 vs. 80 ± 28 min/day; p = 0.001), as movement intensity was lower (1.9 ± 0.4 vs. 2.3 ± 0.6 m/s2; p = 0.004). The COPD patients also tended to spend more time seated (294 ± 114 vs. 246 ± 122 min/day, p = 0.08). Walking time/day correlated with the 6MWT (r = 0.42; p = 0.007) and maximal workload (r = 0.41; p = 0.009), as well as with age, MRC scale score and SGRQ activity domain score (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ −0.43; p ≤ 0.05 for all). Conclusions: This sample of Brazilian patients with COPD, although more active than those evaluated in studies conducted in Europe, were less active than were the controls. Walking time/day correlated only moderately with maximal and functional exercise capacity.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Motor activity; Exercise tolerance.

 


Potential consequences for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients who do not get the recommended minimum daily amount of physical activity

Possíveis conseqüências de não se atingir a mínima atividade física diária recomendada em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva cronica estável

Fabio Pitta, Thierry Troosters, Vanessa S. Probst, Sarah Lucas, Marc Decramer, Rik Gosselink

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):301-308

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The present study attempted to determine whether patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) get the minimum daily amount of physical activity recommended in the guidelines established by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), as well as to characterize the consequences of noncompliance with those guidelines. Methods: This study involved 23 patients (median age: 61 - range, 59-69 years; FEV1: 39% of predicted - range, 34-53%; BMI: 24 kg/m2 - range, 21-27 kg/m2). The following parameters were evaluated: daily physical activity (DynaPort activity monitor); pulmonary function; muscle force; exercise tolerance; quality of life; functional status; and various indices of disease severity (GOLD, BODE and MRC). Results: Based on compliance with the guidelines (minimum of 30 minutes of walking per day), 12 patients were considered "physically active", and 11 were considered "physically inactive". No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age, gender, BMI, muscle force, ventilatory reserve, hyperinflation or quality of life. The inactive group presented more impaired pulmonary function and lower exercise tolerance, as well as lower MRC and BODE scores (p < 0.05). In their daily life, patients in the inactive group also walked for less time and more slowly than did those in the active group (p < 0.05). The MRC and BODE indices were superior to the GOLD index in predicting compliance with the guidelines, both presenting a specificity of 0.83, compared with 0.50 for the GOLD index. The BODE index score increased significantly with each day of inactivity. Conclusion: A large number of COPD patients do not walk more than 30 minutes per day and are therefore not getting the minimum daily amount of physical activity recommended by the ACSM. Inactivity correlates with a higher mortality rate. The MRC and BODE indices proved superior to the GOLD index in predicting whether patients are physically inactive in their daily lives.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Body mass index; Exercise tolerance; Exercise; Guidelines; Severity of illness index

 


Validation of the Modified Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire and the Medical Research Council scale for use in Brazilian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Validação do Modified Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea Questionnaire e da escala do Medical Research Council para o uso em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica no Brasil

Demetria Kovelis, Nicoli Oldemberg Segretti, Vanessa Suziane Probst, Suzanne Claire Lareau, Antônio Fernando Brunetto, Fábio Pitta

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(12):1008-1018

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Abstract Objective: To determine the validity and reproducibility of two subjective instruments to assess limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Brazil: the Pulmonary Functional Status and Dyspnea ­Questionnaire ‑ ­Modified version (PFSDQ-M) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Methods: Thirty patients with COPD (age, 67 ± 10 years; males, 17; forced expiratory volume in one second, 42% ± 13% of predicted) completed the Portuguese-language versions of the two instruments on two occasions, one week apart. The PFSDQ-M has three components: influence of dyspnea on ADLs, influence of fatigue on ADLs and change experienced by the patient with ADLs. The MRC scale is simple, with only five items, in which patients report the degree to which dyspnea limits their performance of ADLs. The traditional Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), previously validated for use in Brazil, was used as a validation criterion. Results: The test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of the PFSDQ-M was 0.93, 0.92 and 0.90 for the dyspnea, fatigue and change components, respectively, compared with 0.83 for the MRC scale. Bland-Altman plots showed good test-retest concordance for the PFSDQ-M. The components of the PFSDQ-M and the MRC scale correlated significantly with all of the domains and the total score on the SGRQ (0.49 < r < 0.80; p < 0.01 for all). Conclusions: The Portuguese-language versions of the PFSDQ-M and the MRC scale proved reproducible and valid for use in patients with COPD in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Activities of daily living; Validation studies.

 


Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: a validity and reproducibility study

Versão em português do Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire: estudo da validade e reprodutibilidade

Graciane Laender Moreira, Fábio Pitta, Dionei Ramos, Cinthia Sousa Carvalho Nascimento, Danielle Barzon, Demétria Kovelis, Ana Lúcia Colange, Antonio Fernando Brunetto, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(8):737-744

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the validity and reproducibility of a Portuguese-language version of the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) in patients with COPD. Methods: A Portuguese-language version of the CRQ (provided by McMaster University, the holder of the questionnaire copyright) was applied to 50 patients with COPD (70 ± 8 years of age; 32 males; FEV1 = 47 ± 18% of predicted) on two occasions, one week apart. The CRQ has four domains (dyspnea, fatigue, emotional function, and mastery) and was applied as an interviewer-administered instrument. The Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), already validated for use in Brazil, was used as the criterion for validation. Spirometry and the six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed to analyze the correlations with the CRQ scores. Results: There were no significant CRQ test-retest differences (p > 0.05 for all domains). The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.95 for the dyspnea, fatigue, emotional function and mastery domains, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.91. The CRQ domains correlated significantly with the SGRQ domains (−0.30 < r < −0.67; p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between spirometric variables and the CRQ domains or between the CRQ domains and the 6MWT, with the exception of the fatigue domain (r = 0.30; p = 0.04). Conclusions: The Portuguese-language version of the CRQ proved to be reproducible and valid for use in Brazilian patients with COPD.

 


Keywords: Quality of life; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Questionnaires.

 


 

 


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