Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Evaluation of the impact that the changes in tuberculosis treatment implemented in Brazil in 2009 have had on disease control in the country

Avaliação do impacto das mudanças do tratamento da tuberculose implantadas em 2009 no controle da tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):437-444

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the impact that the 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil had on the rates of cure, tuberculosis recurrence, mortality, treatment abandonment, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: An ordinary least squares regression model was used in order to perform an interrupted time series analysis of secondary data collected from the Brazilian Tuberculosis Case Registry Database for the period between January of 2003 and December of 2014. Results: The 2009 changes in tuberculosis treatment in Brazil were found to have no association with reductions in the total number of cases (β = 2.17; 95% CI: −3.80 to 8.14; p = 0.47) and in the number of new cases (β = −0.97; 95% CI: −5.89 to 3.94; p = 0.70), as well as having no association with treatment abandonment rates (β = 0.40; 95% CI: −1.12 to 1.93; p = 0.60). The changes in tuberculosis treatment also showed a trend toward an association with decreased cure rates (β = −4.14; 95% CI: −8.63 to 0.34; p = 0.07), as well as an association with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis (β = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.16 to 1.38; p = 0.01). Although there was a significant increase in MDR-TB before and after the changes (p < 0.0001), there was no association between the intervention (i.e., the changes in tuberculosis treatment) and the increase in MDR-TB cases. Conclusions: The changes in tuberculosis treatment were unable to contain the decrease in cure rates, the increase in treatment abandonment rates, and the increase in MDR-TB rates, being associated with increased mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/drug therapy; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/mortality; Interrupted time series analysis; Drug resistance, multiple; Drug compounding.

 


Clinical treatment outcomes of tuberculosis treated with the basic regimen recommended by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health using fixed-dose combination tablets in the greater metropolitan area of Goiânia, Brazil

Desfechos clínicos do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando o esquema básico recomendado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil com comprimidos em dose fixa combinada na região metropolitana de Goiânia

Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Marcus Barreto Conde, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi

J Bras Pneumol.2013;39(1):76-83

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Resumo

Objetivo: Descrever as taxas de cura, falência e abandono do tratamento da tuberculose com o esquema básico preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde (tratamento com rifampicina, isoniazida, pirazinamida e etambutol por dois meses seguido de isoniazida e rifampicina por quatro meses) utilizando comprimidos em dose fixa combinada em regime autoadministrado e descrever os eventos adversos e seus possíveis impactos nos desfechos do tratamento. Métodos: Estudo descritivo utilizando dados coletados prospectivamente dos prontuários médicos de pacientes com tuberculose (idade ≥ 18 anos) tratados com o esquema básico em duas unidades básicas de saúde da região metropolitana de Goiânia, GO. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 40 pacientes com tuberculose. A taxa de cura foi de 67,5%, a taxa de abandono foi de 17,5%, e não ocorreram casos de falência. Nessa amostra, 19 pacientes (47%) relataram reações adversas aos medicamentos. Essas foram leves e moderadas, respectivamente, em 87% e 13% dos casos. Em nenhum caso houve necessidade de mudança do esquema ou suspensão do tratamento. Conclusões: A taxa de cura do esquema básico com o uso de comprimidos em dose fixa combinada sob regime autoadministrado foi semelhante às taxas históricas do esquema anterior. A taxa de abandono, na amostra estudada, foi muito acima da taxa preconizada como adequada (até 5%).

 


Palavras-chave: Tuberculose; Resultado de tratamento; Combinação de medicamentos.

 


Impact of smoking on sputum culture conversion and pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Brazil: a retrospective cohort study

Impacto do tabagismo na conversão de cultura e no desfecho do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar no Brasil: estudo de coorte retrospectivo

Michelle Cailleaux-Cezar1,a, Carla Loredo1,b, José Roberto Lapa e Silva1,c, Marcus Barreto Conde1,2,d

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(2):99-105

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Objective: To evaluate the impact of smoking on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment outcomes and the two-month conversion rates for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum cultures among patients with culture-confirmed PTB in an area with a moderate incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of PTB patients diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2012. Results: Of the 298 patients diagnosed with PTB during the study period, 174 were included in the outcome analysis: 97 (55.7%) were never-smokers, 31 (17.8%) were former smokers, and 46 (26.5%) were current smokers. Smoking was associated with a delay in sputum culture conversion at the end of the second month of TB treatment (relative risk = 3.58 [95% CI: 1.3-9.86]; p = 0.01), as well as with poor treatment outcomes (relative risk = 6.29 [95% CI: 1.57-25.21]; p = 0.009). The association between smoking and a positive culture in the second month of treatment was statistically significant among the current smokers (p = 0.027). Conclusions: In our sample, the probability of a delay in sputum culture conversion was higher in current smokers than in never-smokers, as was the probability of a poor treatment outcome.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Treatment outcome; Smoking.

 


Peculiarities of tuberculosis control in a scenario of urban violence in a disadvantaged community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Peculiaridades do controle da tuberculose em um cenário de violência urbana de uma comunidade carente do Rio de Janeiro

Fabiana Barbosa Assumpção de Souza, Tereza Cristina Scatena Villa, Solange Cesar Cavalcante, Antonio Ruffino Netto, Luciane Blanco Lopes, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(3):318-322

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Objective: To describe the difficulties and peculiarities encountered by health professionals during the treatment and investigation of contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients in disadvantaged communities. Methods: A qualitative study carried out at health care facilities in Health Programming Area 1.0, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a TB incidence rate of 240/100,000 inhabitants. From among the professionals responsible for visiting and treating TB cases and their contacts, two home visit agents and one clinical nurse were selected to be interviewed for the study. Data were transcribed and structured in the form of quotations, emphasizing the predominant ideas. Results: The central ideas focus on the issue of violence, one significant facet of which is the set of rules imposed by narcotraffickers, and on the barriers to the movement of patients/health professionals for TB treatment, as well as on public safety (police). Conclusion: This study provides public health officials, as well as institutions that graduate health professionals, data for reflection and analysis of the difficulties that urban violence creates for the control of TB in a disadvantaged community.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Prevention and control; Violence; Directly observed therapy; Community health nursing.

 


Determination of levels of specific IgA to the HspX recombinant antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

Pesquisa de IgA contra o antígeno recombinante HspX de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural

Loanda Carvalho Sant' Ana Limongi, Liliane Olival, Marcus Barreto Conde, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):302-307

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Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of determining specific IgA to HspX recombinant antigen in pleural fluid and serum samples for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis in patients with pleural effusion. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Serum and pleural fluid samples of patients with pleural effusion and suspected of having pleural tuberculosis were tested with indirect ELISA in order to determine the optical density of specific IgA to HspX. Results: We evaluated serum and pleural fluid samples from 132 patients: 97 diagnosed with pleural tuberculosis (study group) and 35 diagnosed with pleural effusion due to other causes (control group). The determination of IgA in pleural fluid satisfactorily discriminated between pleural tuberculosis patients and control patients. The sensitivity of the test in pleural fluid and in serum was 69% and 30%, respectively, whereas the specificity was 83% and 84%, respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that this test can be used in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Further studies, involving larger patient samples and different epidemiological scenarios, are warranted.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

 


Prevalence of primary drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with no known risk factors for such

Prevalência de resistência primária em pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar sem fatores de risco conhecidos para resistência primária

Giselle Mota Bastos, Michelle Cailleaux Cezar, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):733-739

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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of primary resistance to the drugs in the basic treatment regimen for tuberculosis in treatment-naïve patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and no known risk factors for such resistance, as well as to identify factors potentially associated with drug resistance. Methods: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study. We analyzed the medical records of the subjects enrolled in two clinical trials of treatments for drug-susceptible tuberculosis between November 1, 2004 and March 31, 2011 at the Prof. Newton Bethlem Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Thoracic Diseases Institute, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The inclusion criteria were being ≥ 18 years of age, testing positive for AFB in the first sputum sample, having a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, having undergone drug susceptibility testing, and being treatment-naïve. Patients with a history of imprisonment or hospitalization were excluded, as were those who had been in contact with drug-resistant tuberculosis patients. Results: We included 209 patients. The overall prevalence of primary drug resistance was 16.3%. The overall prevalence of resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin was, respectively, 9.6% and 9.1%, compared with 5.8% and 6.8% for single-drug resistance to isoniazid and streptomycin, respectively. The prevalence of resistance to two or more drugs was 3.8%, and the prevalence of multidrug resistance was 0.5%. No statistically significant associations were found between the variables studied and drug susceptibility testing results. Conclusions: In this sample, the prevalence of primary drug resistance was high despite the absence of known risk factors.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Risk factors.

 


Sleep-disordered breathing in patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia: prevalence and predictive variables

Prevalência e variáveis preditivas de distúrbios respiratórios do sono em pacientes com DPOC e hipoxemia leve

José Laerte Rodrigues Silva Júnior1,4, Marcus Barreto Conde2,3, Krislainy de Sousa Corrêa4, Helena Rabahi4, Arthur Alves Rocha5, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,4

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(3):176-182

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Objective: To infer the prevalence and variables predictive of isolated nocturnal hypoxemia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving clinically stable COPD outpatients with mild hypoxemia (oxygen saturation = 90-94%) at a clinical center specializing in respiratory diseases, located in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, polysomnography, echocardiography, arterial blood gas analysis, six-minute walk test assessment, and chest X-ray. Results: The sample included 64 patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia; 39 (61%) were diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing (OSA, in 14; and isolated nocturnal hypoxemia, in 25). Correlation analysis showed that PaO2 correlated moderately with mean sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.45; p = 0.0002), mean rapid eye movement (REM) sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.43; p = 0.001), and mean non-REM sleep oxygen saturation (r = 0.42; p = 0.001). A cut-off point of PaO2 ≤ 70 mmHg in the arterial blood gas analysis was significantly associated with sleep-disordered breathing (OR = 4.59; 95% CI: 1.54-13.67; p = 0.01). The model showed that, for identifying sleep-disordered breathing, the cut-off point had a specificity of 73.9% (95% CI: 51.6-89.8%), a sensitivity of 63.4% (95% CI: 46.9-77.9%), a positive predictive value of 81.3% (95% CI: 67.7-90.0%), and a negative predictive value of 53.1% (95% CI: 41.4-64.4%), with an area under the ROC curve of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.80), correctly classifying the observations in 67.2% of the cases. Conclusions: In our sample of patients with COPD and mild hypoxemia, the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was high (61%), suggesting that such patients would benefit from sleep studies.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/complications; Sleep wake disorders/epidemiology; Anoxia/etiology.

 


Authors' reply

Resposta dos autores

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,a, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior2,3,b, Marcus Barreto Conde4,5,c

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(3):251-252

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Time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in a city with a high incidence of the disease

Tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar em um município com elevada incidência da doença

Marina de Loureiro Maior, Renata Leborato Guerra, Michelle Cailleaux-Cezar, Jonathan Eric Golub, Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):202-209

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Objective: To estimate the time elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis among treatment-naïve patients with positive results in sputum smear microscopy, and to evaluate the variables associated with delays in diagnosis and in treatment initiation. Methods: This was a descriptive exploratory study involving 199 treatment-naïve tuberculosis patients ≥ 12 years of age with AFB-positive sputum smear microscopy results between 2006 and 2008. At their first (treatment initiation) visit to a primary health care clinic in the city of Nova Iguaçu, Brazil, the patients were interviewed and their ancillary test results were reviewed. Results: The medians (and respective interquartile ranges) of the time from symptom onset to the initiation of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, from symptom onset to seeking medical attention, from entry into care to diagnosis, and from entry into care to treatment initiation, in weeks, were 11 (6-24), 8 (4-20), 2 (1-8), and 1 (1-1), respectively. The variables gender, age, level of education, previous use of antibiotics, HIV status, site of first medical visit, and radiological extent of tuberculosis showed no associations with the time from entry into care to diagnosis or to treatment initiation. The main reason for the delay in seeking medical attention reported by the patients was their inability to recognize their symptoms as indicators of a disease. Conclusions: Among the patients studied, there was an unacceptably long delay between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of tuberculosis treatment.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Tuberculosis/therapy; Delayed diagnosis.

 


Tuberculosis treatment

Tratamento da tuberculose

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,2, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior2, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira1,3, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva1, Marcus Barreto Conde4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(6):472-486

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Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/prevention & control; Tuberculosis/surgery; Tuberculosis/classification.

 


Tuberculosis treatment

Tratamento da tuberculose

Marcelo Fouad Rabahi1,2, José Laerte Rodrigues da Silva Júnior2, Anna Carolina Galvão Ferreira1,3, Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva1, Marcus Barreto Conde4,5

J Bras Pneumol.2018;44(4):340-340

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Intermittent treatment for TB and resistance

Tratamento intermitente para TB e resistência

Marcus Barreto Conde

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):497-499

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