Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Lung abscess: analysis of 252 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1968 and 2004

Abscesso pulmonar de aspiração: análise de 252 casos consecutivos estudados de 1968 a 2004

José da Silva Moreira, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Roberto Goldenfun, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(2):136-143

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To relate the experience of the staff at a health care facility specializing in the management of patients with aspiration lung abscess. Methods: Diagnostic aspects and therapeutic results of 252 consecutive cases of lung abscess seen in patients hospitalized between 1968 and 2004. Results: Of the 252 patients, 209 were male, and 43 were female. The mean age was 41.4 years, and 70.2% were alcoholic. Cough, expectoration, fever and overall poor health were seen over 97% of patients. Chest pain was reported by 64%, 30.2% presented digital clubbing, 82.5% had dental disease, 78.6% reported having lost consciousness at least once, and 67.5% presented foul smelling sputum. In 85.3% of the patients, the lung lesions were located either in the posterior segments of the upper lobe or in the superior segments of the lower lobe, and 96.8% were unilateral. Concomitant pleural empyema was seen in 24 (9.5%) of the patients. Mixed flora was identified in the bronchopulmonary or pleural secretions of 182 patients (72.2%). All patients were initially treated with antibiotics (mainly penicillin or clindamycin), and postural drainage was performed in 98.4% of cases. Surgical procedures were performed in 52 (20.6%) of the patients (drainage of empyema in 24, pulmonary resection in 22 and drainage of the abscess in 6). Cure was obtained in 242 patients (96.0%), and 10 (4.0%) died. Conclusion: Lung abscess occurred predominantly in male adults presenting dental disease and having a history of loss of consciousness (especially as a result of alcohol abuse). Most of the patients were treated clinically with antibiotics and postural drainage, although some surgical procedure was required in one-fifth of the study sample.

 


Keywords: Lung abscess; Pneumonia, aspiration; Bacteria, anaerobic; Bacterial infections; Drainage, postural

 


Objective evaluation of clubbing on shadow images of index fingers. A study of patients with pulmonary disease and of normal individuals

Avaliação objetiva do hipocratismo digital em imagens de sombra de dedo indicador; estudo em pacientes pneumopatas e em indivíduos normais

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):126-133

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Normal diagnosis of clubbing is clinical; however use of objective criteria may improve the accuracy of findings Objective: To present a simple method of obtaining finger images for the purpose of studying clubbing. Method: Shadow images of the index fingers obtained by projection through a transparent glass plate virtually without distortion and displayed on a common sheet of paper yielded the profile (PA) and hyponychial (HA) angles; as well as the ratio between distal phalangean and interphalangean depths (DPD/IPD). Upon physical examination of 306 adult bearers of pulmonary disease, 116 disclosed presence of clubbing (YES); 126 absence (NO); and 64 were doubtful cases (DBT). Also studied were 452 normal adult individuals. Among these 71.0% of the bearers and 33.4% of the controls were smokers. Results: Values found in normal individuals and in patients bearers of clubbing (YES) were, respectively, 172.8±5.9º vs. 183.4±5.9º for PA, 181.5±5.0º vs. 201.4±6.5º for HA, and 0.904±0.029 vs. 1.014±0.062 for DPD/IPD (significant differences, p<0.001). In the doubtful) cases (DBT) the three values were also higher than in normal controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, it was shown that among controls PA, HA and the DPD/IPD ratios were significantly larger in male smokers (p<0.005) while only the DPD/IPD ratio was larger in female smokers (p<0.05). Conclusions: This is a simple method of obtaining clear index finger images. The hyponychial angle determined on the images was the most useful measurement to discriminate digits clinically with and without clubbing (sensitivity of 76.7%, specificity of 83.2%, predictive positive value of 95.5% and predictive negative value of 96.9%).

 


Keywords: Clubbing, profile angle, hyponychial angle, relation DPD/IPD.

 


Bronchiectasis: diagnostic and therapeutic features A study of 170 patients

Bronquiectasias: aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos Estudo de 170 pacientes

José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, José Carlos Felicetti, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro Cardoso, Ana Luiza Schneider Moreira, Cristiano Feijó Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):258-263

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Bronchiectasis is a frequently found disease in medical practice in Brazil leading to significant morbidity and decrease in quality of life of the affected individuals. Objectives: To study diagnostic and therapeutic aspects in a series of hospitalized patients with bronchiectasis in a department of pulmonary diseases. Methods: Signs, symptoms, microbiological and radiographic data, and therapeutic results were studied in 170 hospitalized patients between 1978 and 2001 - females 62.4%, males 37.6%, and aged from 12 to 88 years (mean age 36.8 yrs). Previous history of pneumonia in childhood was detected in 52.5% of the patients, tuberculosis in 19.8%; 8.8% had bronchial asthma, and 2 had Kartagener's syndrome. Results: The most common symptoms were cough (100.0%), expectoration (96.0%) and pulmonary rales (66.0%). The pulmonary lesions were unilateral in 46.5% of the cases. Pneumococcus, H. influenzae or mixed flora were found in 85.0% of the examined sputa. All 170 patients received antibiotics and postural drainage, and 88 of them (younger and with a higher functional reserve) were also submitted to pulmonary resections (82 unilateral and 6 bilateral). Two deaths occurred, and repetitive hospitalizations were more frequent among the clinically treated patients. The follow up showed that most of the surgically treated patients had significant symptoms improvement and rarely needed to be re-hospitalized. Conclusions: In the majority of the patients, lung resection surgery improved permanently the prolonged bronchopulmonary symptoms of patients with bronchiectasis, differently from the patients who received only clinical treatment.

 


Keywords: Bronchiectasis/diagnosis. Bronchiectasis/therapy. Bronchiectasis/surgery. Bronchiectasis/complications. Tomography X-ray computed/methods. Inpatients. Retrospective studies.

 


Differences in the clinical and radiological presentation of intrathoracic tuberculosis in the presence or absence of HIV infection

Diferenças na apresentação clínico-radiológica da tuberculose intratorácica segundo a presença ou não de infecção por HIV

Pedro Dornelles Picon, Maria Luiza Avancini Caramori, Sérgio Luiz Bassanesi, Sandra Jungblut, Marcelo Folgierini, Nelson da Silva Porto, Carlos Fernando Carvalho Rizzon, Roberto Luiz Targa Ferreira, Tânia Mariza de Freitas, Carla Adriane Jarczewski

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):429-436

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the differences in the clinical and radiological presentation of tuberculosis in the presence or absence of HIV infection. Methods: A sample of 231 consecutive adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis admitted to a tuberculosis hospital were studied, assessing HIV infection, AIDS, and associated factors, as well as re-evaluating chest X-rays. Results: There were 113 HIV-positive patients (49%) Comparing the 113 HIV-positive patients (49%) to the 118 HIV-negative patients (51%), the former presented a higher frequency of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary lesions accompanied by intrathoracic lymph node enlargement), hematogenous tuberculosis, and pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement, as well as presenting less pulmonary cavitation. The same was found when HIV-positive patients with AIDS were compared to those without AIDS. There were no differences between the HIV-positive patients without AIDS and the HIV-negative patients. Median CD4 counts were lower in HIV-positive patients with intrathoracic lymph node enlargement and pulmonary lesions than in the HIV-positive patients with pulmonary lesions only (47 vs. 266 cells/mm3; p < 0.0001), in HIV-positive patients with AIDS than in those without AIDS (136 vs. 398 cells/mm3; p < 0.0001) and in patients with atypical pulmonary tuberculosis than in those with other forms of tuberculosis (31 vs. 258 cells/mm3; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Atypical forms and disseminated disease predominate among patients with advanced immunosuppression. In regions where TB prevalence is high, the presence of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis or pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by superficial lymph node enlargement should be considered an AIDS-defining condition.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary; HIV infections; Radiography, thoracic.

 


Prognostic factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

Fatores prognósticos em fibrose pulmonar idiopática

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, Klaus Loureiro Irion, Rafael Franco Moreira, Bruno Ssheidt

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(5):227-234

Abstract PDF PT

In order to evaluate which prognostic factors were significant to the survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 121 histologically confirmed cases of the disease were studied at the Pereira Filho Hospital from 1970 to 1996. All patients were submitted to a standard thorax X-ray and spirometry and answered a standardized questionnaire when admitted to hospital. They also underwent diffusion tests (34 cases), total lung capacity (28), blood gas analysis (106), bronchoalveolar lavage (39), rheumatoid analyses (45), and thoracic CT (24). For further analysis, the patients were classified into two groups: group A (2-year survival) with 55 patients, and group B (more than 5-year survival) with 24 patients; these features were also analyzed according to their significance to survival. Age, increased dyspnea index, long symptomatic period, FVC, DCO, PaO2 and SaO2 reduction, honeycombing intensity, and greater profusion of the reticular pattern on HRCT were considered indicative of worse prognosis. A reduced FEV1 and TLC were also associated with shorter survival. The use of those criteria which had shown statistical significance when evaluated together may determine a more accurate prognostic evaluation of IPF patients resulting in social and therapeutic benefits to patient management.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis. Interstitial lung diseases. Prognosis. Prospective studies. Survival analysis.

 


Pulmonary idiopathic fibrosis: clinical findings and survival in 132 histologically-proven patients

Fibrose pulmonar idiopática: características clínicas e sobrevida em 132 pacientes com comprovação histológica

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, José da Silva Moreira, Nelson da Silva Porto, Klaus Loureiro Irion, Rafael Franco Moreira, Bruno Scheidt

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(2):61-68

Abstract PDF PT

In order to evaluate the clinical findings and survival of pulmonary idiopathic fibrosis patients, 132 cases with histologically-proven biopsy were studied, coming from Pavilhão Pereira Filho Hospital, from 1970 to 1996. The diagnosis was made in 120 patients by open lung biopsy and in 12 cases by transbronchial lung biopsy. The average age was 56 years; 78 were male and only 6 were black. Smoking was observed in 61 cases. Mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 22.7 months. Digital clubbing was present in 75 patients and teleinspiratory crackles in 100. Dyspnea was observed in all but two patients and cough was present in 89 cases. Lung function test values were: FVC, 62%; FEV1, 70%; DLCO, 43.4%; TLC, 76.7%; PaO2, 67.3 mmHg; PaCO2, 39.1 mmHg and SaO2, 92.3%. Bronchoalveolar cellularity values were: macrophages, 83.8%; neutrophils, 9.1%; lymphocytes, 6.1% and eosinophils, 0.6%. In X-ray, honeycombing was present in 79 cases, reduced total lung capacity in 107 and intrathoracic tracheal widening in 50. In CT, the mean reticular pattern profusion was 42.3% and the mean granular pattern profusion was 43.6%. The usual histologic pattern was found in 128 cases, and the descamative pattern in only 4. Information about survival was found in 121 cases until December 1997. The mean survival rate of all patients was 28 months and for dead patients was 24 months. Patient characteristics in this study were associated with advanced stage of disease, which was confirmed by small survival rates of those cases. The strong predominance of usual pattern and better patient selection may have contributed to these results.

 


Keywords: Pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, clinical symptoms; Survival analysis.

 


Pulmonary Rhodococcus equi infection: report of the first two Brazilian cases

Infecção pulmonar por "Rhodococcus equi": relato dos dois primeiros casos brasileiros

Luiz Carlos Severo, Patricia Ritter, Victor Flávio Petrillo, Cícero Armídio Gomes Dias, Nelson da Silva Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(3):-

Abstract PDF PT

Rhodococcus equi, the principal agent of rhodococcosis, is a pleomorphic, gram-positive, aerobic coccus bacillus that infects humans by inhalation or through a transcutaneous route. It is clinically manifested as a pulmonary abscess. The first two Brazilian cases of rhodococcosis are reported on. Both patients were immunocompromised and showed pulmonary infection. The first patient had AIDS and cavitating pneumonia in the left upper lobe, that was fatal. The second case presented Goodpasture syndrome and was under chronic corticotherapy. He displayed a cavitating nodular lesion in the right upper lobe, that was successfully treated with sulfametoxazol-trimethoprim.

 


Keywords: Actinomycetal infections. Pulmonary tuberculosis. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Goodpasture syndrome. Brazil.

 


Multiple pulmonary metastases of benign meningioma

Múltiplas metástases pulmonares de meningioma benigno

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Liliana Gomes Pellegrin, Nelson da Silva Porto, Geraldo Geyer.

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):177-180

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Meningiomas account for approximately one-sixth of all primary neoplasms of the central nervous system and rarely present extracranial metastases. A finding of multiple metastases is rare, as is the presence of respiratory symptoms. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old female patient presenting subacute onset of respiratory symptoms. The patient had undergone resection of a benign intracranial meningioma six months prior, but had no history of lung disease. Upon examination, multiple pulmonary metastases, originating from the primary tumor, were observed.

 


Keywords: Key words: Meningioma. Neoplasm Metastasis. Lung Neoplasms..

 


Clinical and radiographic spectrum of organizing pneumonia: retrospective analysis of 38 cases

O espectro clínico e radiológico da pneumonia em organização: análise retrospectiva de 38 casos

Fabrício Piccoli Fortuna, Cristiano Perin, Juliano de Bortoli, Geraldo Resin Geyer, Nelson da Silva Porto, Adalberto Sperb Rubin

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(6):317-323

Abstract PDF PT

Organizing pneumonia, whether or not accompanied by bronchiolitis obliterans, is a specific anatomicopathological condition of the lungs that can present in a variety of clinical and radiographic ways. It can be either idiopathic or secondary to a number of diseases, including infection and drugs. Objectives: To describe the clinical manifestations, radiographic and spirometric data seen in patients with organizing pneumonia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with a diagnosis of organizing pneumonia. Results: 38 patients were included in the analysis. Fourteen also had clinical conditions related to organizing pneumonia, and they presented more frequently with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates (three of four cases) and associated bronchiolitis obliterans (57% vs. 20%, p = 0,05). Of the 13 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans, only one was asymptomatic and two had localized lesions (15%). Of the eight asymptomatic patients with localized lesions, no one had associated bronchiolitis obliterans, and the radiographic appearance often resembled bronchial carcinoma. Spirometry was generally of little value to diagnosis, probably because of the high prevalence of smoking in the sample. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic presentation of organizing pneumonia is variable. Factors that suggest the absence of coexisting bronchiolitis obliterans are the absence of symptoms and localized radiographic lesions, and this form of the disease has to be more often differentiated from bronchial carcinoma in clinical practice.

 



Chest X-ray and computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary emphysema

Radiograma de tórax e tomografia computadorizada na avaliação do enfisema pulmonar

Klaus Loureiro Irion, Bruno Hochhegger, Edson Marchiori, Nelson da Silva Porto, Sérgio de Vasconcellos Baldisserotto, Pablo Rydz Santana

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(6):720-732

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Emphysema is a condition of the lung, characterized by the abnormal increase in the size of the airspace distal to the terminal bronchioles. Currently, emphysema is the fourth leading cause of death in the USA, affecting 14 million people. The present article describes the principal tools in the imaging diagnosis of emphysema, from the early days until the present. We describe traditional techniques, such as chest X-ray, together with the evolution of computed tomography (CT) to more advanced forms, such as high resolution CT, as well as three-dimensional CT densitometry and volumetric assessment.

 


Keywords: Emphysema; Radiology; Tomography, X-Ray computed; Radiography, thoracic.

 


Sarcoidosis in the south of Brazil: a study of 92 patients

Sarcoidose no sul do Brasil: estudo de 92 pacientes

Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva, Felipe Teixeira Hertz, Dennis Baroni Cruz, Fernanda Caraver, Juliana Cardozo Fernandes, Fabrício Picoli Fortuna, Klaus Irion, Nelson da Silva Porto

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):398-406

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: This case study, conducted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, aims to determine the local profile of sarcoidosis, describing patient characteristics, clinical presentation and pulmonary function, as well as analyzing the results of radiological, histopathological and biochemical tests, at the time of diagnosis in a series of sarcoidosis patients. Methods: A retrospective study of 92 patients with sarcoidosis treated on the Pavilhão Pereira Filho (Pereira Filho [Respiratory Diseases] Ward) of the Hospital Santa Casa, in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, between 1990 and 2003. The protocol included the collection of clinical, biochemical, radiological, spirometric and histological data. Results: There was no significant gender-based difference in frequency (men, 42%; women, 58%). Mean age was 41.8 ± 14.1 years, with 87% of patients being between 20 and 60 years old. Caucasians predominated (84%). Most patients (61%) had never smoked, 29% were former smokers, and 10% were current smokers. The majority (33%) of the diagnoses were made in winter. Among the clinical findings, it is of note that 12% were asymptomatic, 18% presented pulmonary symptoms only, 22% presented extrapulmonary symptoms only, and 48% presented pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms. Spirometry was performed in 79% of patients at the time of diagnosis. In 45% of those patients, abnormal results were obtained: a restrictive pattern was seen in 23%, an obstructive pattern in 18% and a mixed pattern in 4%. Classification by radiological type revealed that 30% were stage I, 48% were stage II, and 22% were stage III. Conclusion: The findings of this study are quite similar to those of other studies in the literature, particularly those conducted in Europe.

 


Keywords: Sarcoidosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary/pathology; Lung diseases/pathology; Prognosis; Retrospective studies

 


 

 


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