Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


Publication continuous and bimonthly

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Causes of death in asthma patients enrolled in the Bahia State Program for the Control of Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis

Causas de óbitos entre asmáticos graves admitidos no Programa de Controle da Asma e da Rinite Alérgica na Bahia

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Carolina Souza-Machado, Daisy Freitas Silva, Eduardo Vieira Ponte, Alvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):372-379

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with asthma who evolved to death, as well as to describe the conditions related to this outcome in a subgroup of patients admitted to the Program for the Control of Asthma and Rhinitis in Bahia (ProAR). Methods: A descriptive, retrospective, observational study. Data from clinical charts and death certificates of 16 patients of 930 subjects with severe asthma monitored at the ProAR Central Reference Center from December 2003 to June 2006 were reviewed. Results: Of the 930 patients participating in the program, 16 (1.72%) died. Of these, there were 10 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 39 to 74 years (median, 55 years); 12 (75%) of the patients were black. Time since diagnosis ranged from 1 to 68 years (median, 30 years). In 43.8 and 53.8%, respectively, there was a personal or family history of atopy. Ex-smokers (<10 pack-years) accounted for 37.5% of the cases. Causes of death listed on the death certificates were as follows: asthma or asthma exacerbations in 8 (50%); respiratory failure in 3 (18.75%); acute heart infarction in 2 (12.5%); hepatitis in 1 (6.25%); hypovolemic shock in 1 (6.25%); and cardiorespiratory arrest in 1 (6.25%). Of the 16 deaths, 13 (81.25%) occurred inside hospitals. Conclusion: Asphyxia and cardiovascular diseases were the most common atributed causes of mortality in this subgroup of patients with severe asthma. Hospital-based mortality, male gender, advanced age, long-term disease and fixed airflow obstruction were the aspects most frequently observed in the cases studied.


Keywords: Mortality; Rhinitis/treatment; Asthma/treatment; Cardiovascular diseases.


Acute breathlessness and sudden death in a patient with blunted perception of the intensity of bronchial obstruction

Dispnéia aguda e morte súbita em paciente com má percepção da intensidade da obstrução brônquica

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Gustavo Alcoforado, Álvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(6):341-344

Abstract PDF PT

Patients with severe asthma and blunted perception of their bronchial obstruction are likely to have elevated risk of death from asthma. The authors describe the case of a 52-year-old woman with asthma whose test results, in a prospective study for the identification of patients with blunted perception of the intensity of their own bronchial obstruction, showed the minimum score in the analogic visual scale in the presence of reduced morning FEV1 and EFP. After the study, the patient was seen at the outpatient clinic. He had no complaints, seemed normal at physical examination and reported to be using no medication at all. Then, while still in the clinic, he suddenly developed dyspnea, respiratory failure, and non-revertible cardio-respiratory failure. Blunted perception of the bronchial obstruction severity probably contributed to the development of acute respiratory failure and death of the patient.


Keywords: Dyspnea. Asthma. Bronchial spasm. Death. Perception.


Poor perception of airflow limitation in patients with moderate to severe asthma

Má percepção da limitação aos fluxos aéreos em pacientes com asma moderada a grave

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Manuela N. Cavalcanti, Álvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(4):185-192


Background: This study evaluated the perception of airway obstruction in moderate to severely asthmatic outpatients and the efficiency of chest auscultation in identifying airflow limitation. Methods: 33 subjects were evaluated at seven weekly visits by using symptoms scores determined by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-100 mm), a clinical index of bronchial hyperreactivity (1-10), the clinical classification of asthma severity (GINA, 1-4) and a thoracic auscultation score (TAS, 0-5), spirometry and peak expiratory flow (PEF), which were correlated by the coefficient of Spearman. Patients were classified as perceivers (-1 £ r < 0) or nonperceivers (0 £ r £ 1) by correlations between VAS for dyspnoea and FEV1. A correlation between auscultation and bronchial obstruction was considered accurate when a r £ -0.5 (TAS vs. FEV1) was found. Results: Seventeen asthmatic patients (51.5%) did not accurately perceive the degree of their airways obstruction (nonperceivers). No clinical characteristics distinguished the groups. Only 39.4% of the individual correlations between TAS and FEV1 indicated accurate discrimination by auscultation. Severe asthma was not associated with inaccurate auscultation nor with malperception in this study. Conclusions: A significant proportion of this sample of asthmatic patients did not accurately perceive their own airway obstruction. Moreover, chest examination was shown to be an unsuitable discriminator of airflow limitation in moderate to severe stable asthmatics in an outpatient clinic.


Keywords: Asthma. Airway obstruction. Auscultation. Lung obstructive diseases.


Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA)

Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia

Adelmo Souza Machado Neto, Álvaro A. Cruz2

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(5):264-272

Abstract PDF PT

Background: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were applied to students at fundamental and high school in five schools at the metropolitan region of Salvador (BA). Statistical analysis: descriptive and associative measurements (Prevalence Rate), Student's t and qui-square tests. Results: Smoking prevalence among teenagers in Salvador (BA) was 9.6%, considering 3,180 valid questionnaires. The frequency was higher in males (14%) than in females (6%). The prevalence increased with age. The mean age ± SD for tobacco initiation was 14 ± 2 years. Among the teenagers, 46% tried cigarettes, and 20% became addicted. The frequency was higher among teenagers whose parents were smokers. The mean ± SD number of daily cigarettes smoked by adolescent tobacco users (n = 132) was 7.4 (± 6.4) units per day, with a higher frequency among boys. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence in a selected set of adolescent students in Salvador (BA) was 9.6%, and it was higher among males. Parental smoking and cigarette experimentation were the major factor found to be associated to tobacco addiction among teenagers.


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology. Adolescents. Students. Tobacco.


BCG vaccination and reduced risk of asthma

Vacinação com BCG e redução do risco de asma

Adelmir Souza-Machado, Álvaro A. Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):-

PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text



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