Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


Publication continuous and bimonthly

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Long-acting b2-agonists in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

b2-agonista de longa duração na doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC)

Luiz Eduardo Mendes Campos

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(3):128-136

Abstract PDF PT

Long-acting b2-agonists can produce the same level of bronchodilation as anticholinergic drugs in patients with COPD, but due to their lipophilicity, the action persists for 12 h after inhalation. Comparative studies between salmeterol and formoterol demonstrate an equivalent potency of salmeterol 50 mcg and formoterol 24 or 12 mcg when administered respectively by a metered dose inhaler or a turbuhaler. One must consider the inhaler in order to establish the equivalent potency between these two agents. Patients with COPD and associated cardiac diseases can use the long-acting b2-agonists safely. In this particular high-risk group of patients, salmeterol, a partial agonist, is considered safer than formoterol. A reassessment of the bronchodilator therapy in COPD might be considered. Tiotropium bromide is a new anticholinergic drug, the action of which prolongs for more than 1-3 days. It is the most promising new bronchodilator for COPD patients.


Keywords: COPD, long-acting b2-agonists, bronchodilators


Pulmonary eosinophilia

Eosinofilia pulmonar

Luiz Eduardo Mendes Campos, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):561-573

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary eosinophilia comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by eosinophilia in pulmonary infiltrates (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) or in tissue (lung biopsy specimens). Although the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, eosinophilia is an important marker for the diagnosis and treatment. Clinical and radiological presentations can include simple pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary eosinophilia associated with a systemic disease, such as in Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Asthma is frequently concomitant and can be a prerequisite, as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In diseases with systemic involvement, the skin, the heart and the nervous system are the most affected organs. The radiological presentation can be typical, or at least suggestive, of one of three types of pulmonary eosinophilia: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The etiology of pulmonary eosinophilia can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary, due to known causes, such as drugs, parasites, fungal infection, mycobacterial infection, irradiation and toxins. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with diffuse lung diseases, connective tissue diseases and neoplasia.


Keywords: Pulmonary eosinophilia; Hypereosinophilic syndrome; Aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary; Churg-Strauss syndrome.




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