Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Update on the approach to smoking in patients with respiratory diseases

Atualização na abordagem do tabagismo em pacientes com doenças respiratórias

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales1,a, Alberto José de Araújo2,b, José Miguel Chatkin3,c, Irma de Godoy4,d, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira5,e, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano6,f, Suzana Erico Tanni4,g, Adriana Ávila de Almeida7,h, Gustavo Chatkin3,i, Luiz Carlos Côrrea da Silva8,j, Cristina Maria Cantarino Gonçalves9,k, Clóvis Botelho12,13,l, Ubiratan Paula Santos14,m, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas15,n, Maristela Rodrigues Sestelo16,o, Ricardo Henrique Sampaio Meireles10,11,p, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Correa17,q, Maria Eunice Moraes de Oliveira18,r, Jonatas Reichert19,s, Mariana Silva Lima6,t, Celso Antonio Rodrigues da Silva20,u

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180314-e20180314

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases/therapy; Respiratory tract diseases/drug therapy; Tobacco use disorder/epidemiology; Smoking cessation; Counseling; Lung neoplasms.


Evaluation of the treatment provided to patients with asthma by the Brazilian Unified Health Care System

Avaliação da assistência ao paciente asmático no Sistema Único de Saúde

Carla Discacciati Silveira, Flávia de Barros Araújo, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(7):628-634

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine, based on international guidelines for asthma management, the appropriateness of the treatment that the Unified Health Care System provides to patients with asthma. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients suspected of having asthma and referred to the Pulmonology Clinic of the Federal University of Minas Gerais Hospital das Clínicas, Brazil, between November of 2006 and October of 2007. Results: A total of 102 patients were included, and 70 were diagnosed with asthma. The previous treatment was consistent with the guidelines in 18.6% of the patients; 50.0% of the patients had previously been submitted to spirometry, and 34.3% had previously been submitted to PEF. The most frequently prescribed medication was short-acting β2 agonists (90.3%). Conclusions: The results show that the majority of non-specialized physicians working within the public health care system do not manage the treatment of patients with asthma in accordance with the guidelines. This situation calls for continuing medical education programs that prioritize primary care.


Keywords: Asthma; Guideline adherence; Therapeutics; Public health.


Pulmonary eosinophilia

Eosinofilia pulmonar

Luiz Eduardo Mendes Campos, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):561-573

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary eosinophilia comprises a heterogeneous group of diseases defined by eosinophilia in pulmonary infiltrates (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) or in tissue (lung biopsy specimens). Although the inflammatory infiltrate is composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils, eosinophilia is an important marker for the diagnosis and treatment. Clinical and radiological presentations can include simple pulmonary eosinophilia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and pulmonary eosinophilia associated with a systemic disease, such as in Churg-Strauss syndrome and hypereosinophilic syndrome. Asthma is frequently concomitant and can be a prerequisite, as in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Churg-Strauss syndrome. In diseases with systemic involvement, the skin, the heart and the nervous system are the most affected organs. The radiological presentation can be typical, or at least suggestive, of one of three types of pulmonary eosinophilia: chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. The etiology of pulmonary eosinophilia can be either primary (idiopathic) or secondary, due to known causes, such as drugs, parasites, fungal infection, mycobacterial infection, irradiation and toxins. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be also associated with diffuse lung diseases, connective tissue diseases and neoplasia.


Keywords: Pulmonary eosinophilia; Hypereosinophilic syndrome; Aspergillosis, allergic bronchopulmonary; Churg-Strauss syndrome.


Pharmaceutical equivalence of the combination formulation of budesonide and formoterol in a single capsule with a dry powder inhaler

Equivalência farmacêutica da formulação combinada de budesonida e formoterol em cápsula única com dispositivo inalador de pó

Marina Andrade-Lima, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira, Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(6):748-756

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of a test formulation (fixed-dose combination of budesonide and formoterol fumarate in a single capsule dispensed in an Aerocaps® inhaler) in relation to a reference formulation (budesonide and formoterol fumarate in two separate capsules dispensed in an Aerolizer® inhaler). Methods: This was an in vitro study in which we performed the identification/quantification of the active ingredients by HPLC and determined dose uniformity and aerodynamic particle size distribution in the test and reference formulations. Results: In the test formulation, the content of budesonide and formoterol was 111.0% and 103.8%, respectively, compared with 110.5% and 104.5%, respectively, in the reference formulation. In the test formulation, dose uniformity regarding budesonide and formoterol was 293.2 µg and 10.2 µg, respectively, whereas it was 353.0 µg and 11.1 µg in the reference formulation. These values are within the recommended range for this type of formulation (75-125% of the labeled dose). The fine particle fraction (< 5 µm) for budesonide and formoterol was 45% and 56%, respectively, in the test formulation and 54% and 52%, respectively, in the reference formulation. Conclusions: For both of the formulations tested, the levels of active ingredients, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic diameters were suitable for use with the respective dry powder inhalers.


Keywords: : Asthma; Budesonide; Bronchodilator agents; Drug therapy, combination.


Six-minute walk test and respiratory muscle strength in patients with uncontrolled severe asth-ma: a pilot study

Teste de caminhada de seis minutos e força muscular respiratória em pacientes com asma grave não controlada: um estudo piloto

Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira1, Eliane Viana Mancuzo2, Camila Farnese Rezende3, Ricardo de Amorim Côrrea4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(3):211-218

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate respiratory muscle strength and six-minute walk test (6MWT) variables in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma (UCSA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving UCSA patients followed at a university hospital. The patients underwent 6MWT, spirometry, and measurements of respiratory muscle strength, as well as completing the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The Mann-Whitney test was used in order to analyze 6MWT variables, whereas the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether there was an association between the use of oral corticosteroids and respiratory muscle strength. Results: We included 25 patients. Mean FEV1 was 58.8  21.8% of predicted, and mean ACT score was 14.0  3.9 points. No significant difference was found between the median six-minute walk distance recorded for the UCSA patients and that predicted for healthy Brazilians (512 m and 534 m, respectively; p = 0.14). During the 6MWT, there was no significant drop in SpO2. Mean MIP and MEP were normal (72.9  15.2% and 67.6  22.2%, respectively). Comparing the patients treated with at least four courses of oral corticosteroids per year and those treated with three or fewer, we found no significant differences in MIP (p = 0.15) or MEP (p = 0.45). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that UCSA patients are similar to normal subjects in terms of 6MWT variables and respiratory muscle strength. The use of oral corticosteroids has no apparent impact on respiratory muscle strength.




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