Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Noncompliance with treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuiabá, in the State of Mato Grosso - Brazil

Abandono do tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar em Cuiabá - MT - Brasil

Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):427-435

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze factors predictive of noncompliance with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. Methods: A historical cohort study involving 481 of the 529 active tuberculosis patients registered with the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, during the 1998-2000 period. Data were obtained by analyzing medical charts and registration records. In the bivariate analysis, the chi-square test was used to calculate noncompliance rate ratios (relative risk), 95% confidence intervals were determined, and Fisher's exact test was used. The choice to estimate the rate of incidence was the method of density and a multivariate logistic regression model was constructed in order to identify the variables that were most predictive of noncompliance, using a level of statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: The global rate of incidence was 27.3%, equivalent to 5.1 noncompliant patients/100 patients/month, increasing in the second and third months of treatment. In the final logistic regression model, the following were considered predictors of noncompliance: unsupervised treatment (odds ratio: 2.58; 95% confidence interval: 1.64 - 4.06; p < 0.001); having been treated during the 1998-1999 period (odds ratio: 1.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.14 - 1.80; p = 0.002); being male (odds ratio: 1.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 - 1.76; p = 0.005) and having been out of compliance with previous treatment regimes (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.06 - 1.78; p < 0.017). Conclusion: The results indicate an elevated incidence of noncompliance and show that unsupervised treatment, year in which treatment was received, male gender and prior noncompliance were predictors of future noncompliance.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/therapy; Treatment refusal; Cohort studies

 


Update on the approach to smoking in patients with respiratory diseases

Atualização na abordagem do tabagismo em pacientes com doenças respiratórias

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales1,a, Alberto José de Araújo2,b, José Miguel Chatkin3,c, Irma de Godoy4,d, Luiz Fernando Ferreira Pereira5,e, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira Castellano6,f, Suzana Erico Tanni4,g, Adriana Ávila de Almeida7,h, Gustavo Chatkin3,i, Luiz Carlos Côrrea da Silva8,j, Cristina Maria Cantarino Gonçalves9,k, Clóvis Botelho12,13,l, Ubiratan Paula Santos14,m, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas15,n, Maristela Rodrigues Sestelo16,o, Ricardo Henrique Sampaio Meireles10,11,p, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto Correa17,q, Maria Eunice Moraes de Oliveira18,r, Jonatas Reichert19,s, Mariana Silva Lima6,t, Celso Antonio Rodrigues da Silva20,u

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(3):e20180314-e20180314

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with "healthy" smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success.

 


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases/therapy; Respiratory tract diseases/drug therapy; Tobacco use disorder/epidemiology; Smoking cessation; Counseling; Lung neoplasms.

 


Psychological profile and nicotine dependence in smoking undergraduate students of UFMT

Características de personalidade e dependência nicotínica em universitários fumantes da UFMT

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Clovis Botelho, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Ricardo Gorayeb

J Bras Pneumol.2003;29(1):21-27

Abstract PDF PT

Introduction: Data on the relationship between personality profile and nicotine addiction may help health professionals in the design and improvement of programs for the treatment and prevention of addiction. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the personality profile and nicotine addiction in a group of smoking undergraduate students. Methods: A total of 1,245 undergraduate students were randomly selected among 10,500 students enrolled at the UFMT - Cuiabá campus in 2001. A standard questionnaire was applied for social characterization and to determine the pattern of cigarette consumption, with 80 students being considered smokers. These students were then submitted to the Fagerström Test (1978) of nicotine addiction and to the reduced version of the Comrey Personality Scale (CPS) which determines personality dimensions. Results: Analysis of the mean scores (Student t-test) revealed a marginal or inversely proportional borderline association between addiction and the Order x Lack of Compulsion scale (p = 0.06), and a negative or inversely proportional association between the CPS Extroversion x Introversion (p = 0.002) and Control of Validity scales (p = 0.04). Linear regression of the Fagerström Test points confirmed the inversely proportional borderline association between addiction and the Order x Lack of Compulsion (p = 0.06) and CPS Extroversion x Introversion scales (p = 0.02). However, controlling for interference of daily cigarette consumption, only the Extroversion x Introversion scale remained associated with addiction (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Smoker and nicotine dependent students are less extrovert than non-dependent smokers.

 



Psychological characteristics associated with tobacco smoking behavior

Características psicológicas associadas ao comportamento de fumar tabaco

Regina de Cássia Rondina, Ricardo Gorayeb, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(5):592-601

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This article is a literature review of the psychological aspects of smoking behavior, highlighting personality characteristics of the smoker as an obstacle to smoking cessation. It describes the relation between smoking behavior and personality, and between smoking and the principal psychiatric disorders. Studies reveal that smokers tend to be more extroverted, anxious, tense, and impulsive, and show more traits of neuroticism and psychoticism than do ex-smokers or nonsmokers. The literature also reveals a strong association between smoking and mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. Understanding the psychological factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence can further the development and improvement of therapeutic strategies to be used in smoking-cessation programs, as well as of programs aimed at prevention and education.

 


Keywords: Personality; Mental disorders; Smoking.

 


Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

Depressão, ansiedade, estresse e motivação em fumantes durante o tratamento para a cessação do tabagismo

Maritza Muzzi Cardozo Pawlina1, Regina de Cássia Rondina2, Mariano Martinez Espinosa3, Clóvis Botelho4

J Bras Pneumol.2015;41(5):433-439

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded.

 


Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Motivation; Cognitive therapy; Smoking cessation.

 


Factors associated with cigarette experimentation among adolescents

Fatores associados à experimentação do cigarro em adolescentes

Maristela Prado e Silva, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Clovis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(11):927-935

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking experimentation among adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional study, using a specific questionnaire to interview 2,883 students from 7th to 10th grade in schools located in the urban area of the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Prevalence was estimated, and the principal factors related to cigarette experimentation were analyzed. Subsequently, a hierarchical logistic model was used to describe the chances of cigarette experimentation related to the variables being investigated. Results: The prevalence of cigarette experimentation was 30.2%. In the final model of the analysis, the main variables related to cigarette experimentation were low maternal level of education (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.72-3.47); low socioeconomic level (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.01-1.93); studying in a public school (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.22-2.00); being in 10th grade (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 2.63-4.54); attending school in the evening (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.85-3.22); having divorced parents (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.02-1.49); having been held back for one school year (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.78-2.70); having friends who smoke (OR = 3.75; 95% CI: 2.99-4.70) having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.82-3.27); and being older (age 17-19 years) (OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.39-4.17). Conclusions: A high proportion of adolescents have experimented with smoking. After adjusting for confounding variables, the factors most strongly associated with cigarette experimentation were maternal level of education, age of the adolescent, attending school in the evening, having been held back for one school year and having a sibling who smokes. Preventive measures must be directed at adolescents in schools in order to control smoking.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Adolescent; Students; Risk factors.

 


Influence of cigarette smoking on body weight, food and water consumption, and growth of rats

Influência do tabagismo no ganho ponderal, crescimento corporal, consumo alimentar e hídrico de ratos

Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves-Silva, Márcia Gonçalves Lemos-Santos, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(3):124-130

Abstract PDF PT

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking and its cessation on body weight, foot and water consumption, and growth of rats. Thirty-nine male were used; 18 were adults (3 months old) and 21 were young (1.5 months old). In the first phase, the animals were exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days (smokers) and compared to controls, exposed to clean air. In the second phase, both former smokers and controls were observed for 30 additional days. During both phases, the animals were monitored as to body weight, length, food intake and water consumption. Length was measured only for the young rats. Exposure to smoke significantly suppressed body weight gain (p < 0.05) when compared to controls, either for adult or for young. The smokers' food consumption was significantly reduced when compared to controls. Adult rats showed no difference in water consumption. However, for the young group the difference was significant, lower for smoker (p < 0.05) than controls. The velocity of growth in young smokers was slower than non-smokers. After finishing the exposure to cigarette smoke, body weight and foot consumption increased in smoker rats, reaching the control group. These results suggest that exposure to cigarette smoke affects body weight and food consumption in adult and young rats, in addition to inhibiting growth in length of young rats.

 


Keywords: Cigarette smoking. Nutrition. Body growth

 


Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and spirometric evaluation in marble workers

Prevalência de sintomas respiratórios e avaliação espirométrica em trabalhadores de marmorarias

Ayrdes Benedita Duarte dos Anjos Pivetta, Clóvis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.1997;23(4):179-188

Abstract PDF PT

The prevalence of respiratory symptoms in populations at risk or in populations not at risk is an indirect indicator of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, with a high grade of confidence from an epidemiological point of view. In order to contribute to this, the authors carried out a prevalence study among workers with occupational exposure to silica dust in a marble plant. The authors selected workers who worked with hard granite stone, slate and marble. Workers were submitted to a standardized questionnaire and 84 people were studied. All were male, mean age was (± SD) 26.2 (± 7.4 years), and had had short time of exposure to dust (52 workers worked less than 5 years in the marble industry). Thirty-four were smokers (10.0 (± 2.3) pack years), 9 former smokers, and 41 non-smokers. Twenty-four had cough, 30 sputum, 1 dyspnea grade III, 5 wheezing. Thirty-eight presented at least one of the studied respiratory symptoms and 9 presented chronic bronchitis. The lung function evaluated in 82 workers through spirometry was normal in 78 of the cases and an obstructive pattern was detected in 4 of them. A significant statistical association between chronic bronchitis and exposure time to stone dust was found (OR = 5.37; 95% CI = 1.01-28.74). However, that association was lost after other factors, such as cigarette smoking and age, were evaluated (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.12-11.93). The association between smoking and bronchitis (OR = 14.18; 95% CI = 1.80-111.62) remained marginally significant even after controlling exposure time to stone dust and age (OR = 6.34; 95% CI = 0.76-52.94). Results suggest that among the marble industry workers studied, the prevalence of chronic bronchitis is more strongly associated to smoking to with exposure time to stone dust.

 



Respiratory symptoms as health status indicators in workers at ceramics manufacturing facilities

Sintomas respiratórios como indicadores de estado de saúde em trabalhadores de indústrias de cerâmicas

Edilaura Nunes Rondon, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Clovis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(1):36-45

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and their association with sociodemographic variables and with the characteristics of the work environment. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 464 workers employed at ceramics manufacturing facilities located in the city of Várzea Grande, Brazil. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire comprising questions regarding sociodemographic variables, work environment characteristics, and respiratory symptoms. Data were analyzed by means of prevalence ratios and their respective 95% CIs between the dependent variable (respiratory symptoms) and the other explanatory variables. In the multivariate analysis, two hierarchical models were built, the response variables being "all respiratory symptoms" and "severe respiratory symptoms". Results: In the sample studied, the prevalence of "all respiratory symptoms" was 78%, whereas that of "severe respiratory symptoms" was 35%. The factors associated with "all respiratory symptoms" were gender, age bracket, level of education, type of occupation, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. The factors associated with "severe respiratory symptoms" were level of education, exposure to dust, and exposure to chemical products. Conclusions: Our results indicate the presence of upper and lower airway disease in the population studied.

 


Keywords: Questionnaires; Occupational diseases/epidemiology; Health status indicators.

 


Smoking and abdominal fat in blood donors

Tabagismo e obesidade abdominal em doadores de sangue

Cássia da Silva Faria, Clovis Botelho, Regina Maria Veras Gonçalves da Silva, Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(3):356-363

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the association between smoking and abdominal fat among male blood donors. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,235 adult male blood donors (age, 20-59 years) in the city of Cuiabá, Brazil. Socioeconomic, demographic, and anthropometric data, as well as information on the lifestyle of the participants, were collected. In this study, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were used as markers of abdominal fat. The association between these two markers and smoking was analyzed by multiple linear regression in separate models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Of the 1,235 respondents, 273 (22.1%) reported being smokers, and, of those, 99 (36.3%) reported smoking more than 15 cigarettes per day. The average body mass index was lower among smokers than among nonsmokers (p < 0.001). In the multiple linear regression analyses, smoking was associated with waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio for smokers of 6-10 cigarettes/day and of ≥ 11 cigarettes/day. Conclusions: In our sample, smoking was positively associated with indicators of abdominal fat, regardless of potential confounding factors, including the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

 


Keywords: Smoking; Obesity; Abdominal fat.

 


Smoking among undergraduate health sciences students: prevalence and knowledge

Tabagismo em universitários de ciências da saúde: prevalência e conhecimento

Clovis Botelho, Ana Maura Pereira da Silva, Claudia Duarte Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(3):360-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking and the level of knowledge about smoking among undergraduate health sciences students. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed in the classroom by senior undergraduate health sciences students in the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande, Brazil. We evaluated students at one public university and two private universities. Five variables were studied: age, gender, type of course, smoking status, and knowledge about smoking. The knowledge variable was divided into five parts: smoking as a disease; smoking/nicotine as a cause of dependence; specific education on smoking; major obstacles to the success of smoking cessation; and forms of smoking treatment. Only the medical students responded to questions related to the last two items. Results: The prevalence of smoking ranged from 9.3% at the public university to 21.1% at one of the two private universities. Approximately 30% of the respondents were unable to identify nicotine as the cause of dependence, 20.8% did not consider smoking a disease, and 47.2% reported that they had never received any instruction on the topic of smoking. The medical students enrolled at the public university showed the highest level of knowledge regarding the various forms of smoking treatment. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the university students in our sample was high. Their knowledge about smoking was insufficient, which suggests inadequacy of the curricula at these universities.

 


Keywords: Tabagismo/epidemiologia; Estudantes; Questionários.

 


Climate variations and health services use for the treatment of asthmatic children under five years of age: an ecological study

Variações climáticas e uso de serviços de saúde em crianças asmáticas menores de cinco anos de idade: um estudo ecológico

Celso Taques Saldanha, Ageo Mário Cândido da Silva, Clovis Botelho

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(6):492-498

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To study variations in climate (dry or rainy periods) and health services use for the treatment of asthma in children under five years of age. Methods: An ecological study was conducted and involved analysis of the medical charts of all children under the age of five that were diagnosed with asthma and treated in the Municipal Emergency Room of the city of Cuiabá, located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In accordance with the geographic location of Cuiabá, two climatic periods were identified: a dry season (from May to October) and a rainy season (from November to April). Results: The percentage of children treated that were diagnosed with asthma was 12.2% (3140/25,802), with no gender-based difference. Children from 3 to 5 years of age were most often affected. The overall asthma hospitalization rate was 1.3% (336/25,802), rising to 10.7% (336/3140) among the asthmatic children treated in the emergency room. In the rainy season, the percentage of outpatients seeking treatment for asthma was higher than in the dry season: 39.1% (1228/3140) versus 60.9% (1912/3140). However, during the dry season, a greater proportion of such patients were hospitalized: 52.3% (176/336) versus 47.7% (160/336). These differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The dry season, which was correlated with higher asthma hospitalization rates, seems to be related to more severe cases of asthma in children under five years of age.

 


Keywords: Asthma/prevention & control; Allergens/adverse effects; Respiratory hypersensitivity; Environmental monitoring;

 


 

 


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