Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


Publication continuous and bimonthly

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Diaphragmatic dysfunction and mortality in patients with COPD

Disfunção diafragmática e mortalidade em pacientes portadores de DPOC

Wellington Pereira dos Santos Yamaguti, Elaine Paulin, João Marcos Salge, Maria Cristina Chammas, Alberto Cukier, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(12):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether COPD patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction present higher risk of mortality than do those without such dysfunction. Methods: We evaluated pulmonary function, diaphragm mobility and quality of life, as well as determining the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index, in 42 COPD patients. The patients were allocated to two groups according to the degree to which diaphragm mobility was impaired: low mobility (LM; mobility ≤ 33.99 mm); and high mobility (HM; mobility ≥ 34.00 mm). The BODE index and the quality of life were quantified in both groups. All patients were followed up prospectively for up to 48 months in order to determine the number of deaths resulting from respiratory complications due to COPD. Results: Of the 42 patients evaluated, 20 were allocated to the LM group, and 22 were allocated to the HM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding age, lung hyperinflation or quality of life. However, BODE index values were higher in the LM group than in the HM group (p = 0.01). During the 48-month follow-up period, there were four deaths within the population studied, and all of those deaths occurred in the LM group (15.79%; p = 0.02). Conclusions: These findings suggest that COPD patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction, characterized by low diaphragm mobility, have a higher risk of death than do those without such dysfunction.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive/mortality; Diaphragm; Exercise tolerance; Quality of life.


Dysfunctional breathing: what do we know?

Disfunção respiratória: o que sabemos?

Laís Silva Vidotto1,a, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho2,b, Alex Harvey1,c, Mandy Jones1,d

J Bras Pneumol.2019;45(1):e20170347 -e20170347

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is a respiratory condition characterized by irregular breathing patterns that occur either in the absence of concurrent diseases or secondary to cardiopulmonary diseases. Although the primary symptom is often dyspnea or "air hunger", DB is also associated with nonrespiratory symptoms such as dizziness and palpitations. DB has been identified across all ages. Its prevalence among adults in primary care in the United Kingdom is approximately 9.5%. In addition, among individuals with asthma, a positive diagnosis of DB is found in a third of women and a fifth of men. Although DB has been investigated for decades, it remains poorly understood because of a paucity of high-quality clinical trials and validated outcome measures specific to this population. Accordingly, DB is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, given the similarity of its associated symptoms (dyspnea, tachycardia, and dizziness) to those of other common cardiopulmonary diseases such as COPD and asthma. The high rates of misdiagnosis of DB suggest that health care professionals do not fully understand this condition and may therefore fail to provide patients with an appropriate treatment. Given the multifarious, psychophysiological nature of DB, a holistic, multidimensional assessment would seem the most appropriate way to enhance understanding and diagnostic accuracy. The present narrative review was developed as a means of summarizing the available evidence about DB, as well as improving understanding of the condition by researchers and practitioners.


Keywords: Hyperventilation; Pulmonary ventilation; Respiratory system; Pulmonary medicine.


Phenotypes of asthma in low-income children and adolescents: cluster analysis

Fenótipos de asma em crianças e adolescentes de baixa renda: análise de agrupamentos

Anna Lucia Barros Cabral1, Andrey Wirgues Sousa1,2, Felipe Augusto Rodrigues Mendes2, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho2

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(1):44-50

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Studies characterizing asthma phenotypes have predominantly included adults or have involved children and adolescents in developed countries. Therefore, their applicability in other populations, such as those of developing countries, remains indeterminate. Our objective was to determine how low-income children and adolescents with asthma in Brazil are distributed across a cluster analysis. Methods: We included 306 children and adolescents (6-18 years of age) with a clinical diagnosis of asthma and under medical treatment for at least one year of follow-up. At enrollment, all the patients were clinically stable. For the cluster analysis, we selected 20 variables commonly measured in clinical practice and considered important in defining asthma phenotypes. Variables with high multicollinearity were excluded. A cluster analysis was applied using a two-step agglomerative test and log-likelihood distance measure. Results: Three clusters were defined for our population. Cluster 1 (n = 94) included subjects with normal pulmonary function, mild eosinophil inflammation, few exacerbations, later age at asthma onset, and mild atopy. Cluster 2 (n = 87) included those with normal pulmonary function, a moderate number of exacerbations, early age at asthma onset, more severe eosinophil inflammation, and moderate atopy. Cluster 3 (n = 108) included those with poor pulmonary function, frequent exacerbations, severe eosinophil inflammation, and severe atopy. Conclusions: Asthma was characterized by the presence of atopy, number of exacerbations, and lung function in low-income children and adolescents in Brazil. The many similarities with previous cluster analyses of phenotypes indicate that this approach shows good generalizability.


Keywords: Asthma/classification; Asthma/etiology; Child; Adolescent.


Incidence of asthma symptoms and decreased pulmonary function in young amateur swimmers

Frequência de sintomas de asma e de redução da função pulmonar entre crianças e adolescentes nadadores amadores

Iara Nely Fiks, Leonardo Carlos Araujo Santos, Telma Antunes, Raquel Calvo Gonçalves, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(3):206-212

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the incidence of asthma symptoms in young amateur swimmers, and to describe the clinical treatment of the children with asthma in a private sports club in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The study included 171 amateur swimmers, ranging from 6 to14 years of age. All of the participants or their legal guardians were asked to complete the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, and 119 were submitted to pulmonary function testing at rest. Results: The overall incidence of asthma symptoms (ISAAC score ≥ 6) among the swimmers was 16.8%. Of the 119 swimmers submitted to spirometry, 39 (32.7%) presented spirometric alterations (FEV1/FVC < 0.75). Among those with an ISAAC score ≥ 6, there were 10 (31.2%) who stated that they were receiving no asthma treatment. Of those who reported receiving pharmacological treatment, 24% made use of bronchodilators but not of corticosteroids. Conclusions: The incidence of asthma symptoms and pulmonary function alterations among amateur swimmers within the 6-14 age bracket was high. In addition, a relevant proportion of these athletes were receiving no treatment.


Keywords: Asthma/therapy; Asthma/diagnosis; Child; Swimming; Exercise.


Occurrence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age

Ocorrência de sintomas asmáticos e de distúrbio obstrutivo em nadadores amadores de 8 a 17 anos de idade

Iara Nely Fiks, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Leonardo Dias, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(1):24-32

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms and of airflow obstruction in amateur swimmers between 8 and 17 years of age, as well as to assess the awareness of asthma and asthma management among these swimmers, their parents, and their coaches. Methods: Our sample comprised 1,116 amateur swimmers who completed a modified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood written questionnaire, to which questions regarding the reasons to initiate swimming and regarding asthma management had been added. In addition, the participants underwent spirometry prior to a swimming competition. Results:   The prevalence of asthma symptoms in the last 12 months was 11.5%, and 327 (29.4%) of the participants reported "wheezing or whistling" in the past. Of the 223 swimmers who reported "asthma ever" or "bronchitis ever", only 102 (45.7%) reported having ever been treated: the most common "treatment" was swimming (in 37.3%), and only 12.7% used inhaled corticosteroids. Of the 254 participants (22.7%) with airflow obstruction, only 52  (20.5%) reported having asthma symptoms. Conclusions: Asthma symptoms are present in amateur swimmers, and a considerable number of such swimmers have airflow obstruction without symptoms. It is therefore likely that the prevalence of asthma is underestimated in this population. It is worrisome that, in our study sample, the swimmers previously diagnosed with asthma were not using the recommended treatments for asthma. The clinical implications of these findings underscore the importance of implementing educational measures for amateur swimmers, as well as for their parents and coaches, to help them recognize asthma symptoms and the consequent risks in the sports environment, in order to allow prompt diagnosis and early clinical intervention.


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/prevention & control; Sports.


Using the interrupter technique to evaluate airway resistance in cystic fibrosis patients

Pletismografia respiratória por indutância: estudo comparativo entre calibração por manobra de isovolume e calibração qualitativa diagnóstica em voluntários saudáveis avaliados em diferentes posturas

Renata Cléia Claudino Barbosa, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Henrique Takachi Moriya

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(2):194-201

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare two methods of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) calibration in three different positions. Methods: We evaluated 28 healthy subjects (18 women and 10 men), with a mean age of 25.4 ± 3.9 years. For all of the subjects, isovolume maneuver calibration (ISOCAL) and qualitative diagnostic calibration (QDC) were used in the orthostatic, sitting, and supine positions. In order to evaluate the concordance between the two calibration methods, we used ANOVA and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The values of the constant of proportionality (K) were significantly different between ISOCAL and QDC in the three positions evaluated: 1.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.2, in the supine position, 2.5 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the sitting position, and 2.0 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 in the orthostatic position (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Our results suggest that QDC is an inaccurate method for the calibration of RIP. The K values obtained with ISOCAL reveal that RIP should be calibrated for each position evaluated.


Keywords: Plethysmography; Respiratory mechanics; Posture; Calibration.


Symptoms of dysphagia in patients with COPD

Sintomas indicativos de disfagia em portadores de DPOC

Rosane de Deus Chaves, Celso Ricardo Fernandes de Carvalho, Alberto Cukier, Rafael Stelmach, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade

J Bras Pneumol.2011;37(2):176-183

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with COPD, based on their responses on a self-perception questionnaire. Methods: The study comprised 35 individuals with COPD and 35 healthy individuals, matched for age and gender. The study group was assessed regarding COPD severity; sensation of dyspnea; body mass index (BMI); and symptoms of dysphagia. The control group was assessed regarding BMI and symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The most common symptoms of dysphagia in the study group were pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (p < 0.001); esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia (p < 0.001); and nutritional symptoms (p < 0.001). Positive correlations were found between the following pairs of variables: FEV1 and BMI (r = 0.567; p < 0.001); pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection and dyspnea (r = 0.408; p = 0.015); and esophageal symptoms/history of pneumonia and pharyngeal symptoms/airway protection (r = 0.531; p = 0.001). There was a negative correlation between nutritional symptoms and BMI (r = −0.046; p < 0.008). Conclusions: Our results show that the individuals with COPD presented with symptoms of dysphagia that were associated with the pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing, as well as with the mechanism of airway protection, a history of pneumonia, and nutritional symptoms.


Keywords: Deglutition disorders; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Pathological conditions, signs and symptoms.




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