Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Epidemiological aspects of pleural tuberculosis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1998-2005)

Aspectos epidemiológicos da tuberculose pleural no estado de São Paulo (1998-2005)

Márcia Seiscento, Francisco Suso Vargas, Maria Josefa Penon Rujula, Sidney Bombarda, David Everson Uip, Vera Maria Nedes Galesi

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(6):548-554

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of and trends regarding the incidence of pleural TB. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of TB cases reported between 1998 and 2005 and compiled from the Epidemiological Surveillance Tuberculosis System (Epi-TB database). Results: A total of 144,347 new cases of TB were reported during the period studied. Pulmonary TB was the predominant form (118,575 cases; 82.2%). Among the extrapulmonary forms (25,773 cases; 17.8%), pleural TB was the form most often reported (12,545 cases; 48.7%). For all forms, the incidence (per 100,000 population) decreased (from 49.7 in 1998 to 44.6 in 2005; R2 = 0.898; p < 0.001), whereas the incidence of pleural TB remained stable (4.1 in 1998 and 3.8 in 2005; R2 = 0.433; p = 0.076). The highest incidence of pleural TB was found among males (2:1) aged from 30 to 59 years. Of the 12,545 patients with pleural TB, 4,018 (32.0%) presented comorbidities: alcoholism (9.5%); HIV (8.0%); diabetes (3.3%); and mental illness (1.2%). The diagnosis was based on bacteriological (14.2%) and histological (30.2%) methods, as well as on unspecified methods (55.6%). Conclusions: Pleural TB was the predominant extrapulmonary form of TB in the state of São Paulo, with a stable incidence between 1998 and 2005, although there was a trend toward a decrease in the incidence of the pulmonary forms. The diagnosis of pleural TB was confirmed through histology and bacteriology in 44.4% of the cases.

 


Keywords: Pleural effusion; Tuberculosis, pleural; HIV.

 


Pleural effusion caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria

Derrame pleural por micobactéria não tuberculosa

Márcia Seiscento, Sidney Bombarda, Adriana Castro de Carvalho, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Lisete Teixeira

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(5):459-463

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, can cause pulmonary disease presenting clinical and radiological similarities to tuberculosis. M. kansasii infection has been associated with risk factors such as bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis sequelae, pneumoconiosis and immunosuppression. Herein, we describe a case of pleural effusion in a 67-year-old patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The histological analysis demonstrated a granulomatous chronic process and acid-fast bacilli positivity, suggesting a diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. M. kansasii was detected both in pleural fluid cultures and in cultures of tissue samples. We discuss the differential etiologic diagnosis with other infectious agents of granulomatous diseases, and we address treatment options.

 


Keywords: Mycobacterium kansasii; Mycobacterium infections; Pleural effusion; Case reports

 


Evaluation of glucose metabolism in active lung tuberculosis by positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)

Estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar ativa utilizando a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (18F-FDG PET)

Sidney Bombarda, José Soares Júnior, Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2002;28(5):270-276

Abstract PDF PT

Current methods to evaluate lung tuberculosis include chest radiography and computed tomography. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are performed after administration of specific radiopharmaceuticals that accumulate in the organs of interest. Alterations of glucose metabolism can be observed by positron-emission tomography, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET). These findings are present in the neoplasms, but also in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, that uses glucose as an energy source. Purpose: The study of glucose metabolism in lung tuberculosis by PET and the comparison of this results to CT scan findings. Material and methods: Twenty patients with active lung tuberculosis were evaluated. The 18F-FDG PET and computed tomography were performed in all patients, after the diagnosis and until 30 days of treatment. Results of both methods were compared. Results: All patients showed 18F-FDG positive uptake. On the computed tomography, all patients showed signs compatible with tuberculosis. The sensitivity of both methods was of 100%. There was significant concordance between the two methods (K = 0.27). Conclusions: The study concludes that glucose metabolism is modified in lung tuberculosis. There was concordance in the anatomic changes observed on computed tomography.

 



Pulmonary tuberculosis imaging

Imagem em tuberculose pulmonar

Sidney Bombarda, Cláudia Maria Figueiredo, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari, José Soares Júnior, Márcia Seiscento, Mário Terra Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2001;27(6):329-340

Abstract PDF PT

Tuberculosis is a disease of high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. Imaging methods can reveal signs suggestive of tuberculosis activity or sequelae. Chest radiographs can reveal active lung tuberculosis through consolidations, cavitations, interstitial patterns (nodular and reticulo-nodular), mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy and pleural effusions. Images compatible with the active disease, such as centrilobular nodules segmentarily distributed, thick-walled cavities, thickened bronchial or bronchiolar walls, bronchiectasis and lymphadenopathy can be observed by computerized tomography. Thin-walled cavities, traction bronchiectasis, parenchymal bands, emphysema and mosaic pattern are signs suggestive of inactive disease. Gallium-67 citrate scyntigraphy is a complementary method useful in the detection of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Inhalation / perfusion analyses are used in the pre-operative assessment of patients carrying tuberculosis sequelaes and multiresistant tuberculosis. Positron emission tomography with fluorine-18 labeled deoxyglucose allows the detection of the inflammatory process that takes place during the active stage of tuberculosis and may persist, not so intense, after specific treatment is over. Imaging methods are valuable tools to be used in the diagnosis and follow up of pulmonary tuberculosis.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis. Radiography. Computed tomography. Scintigraphy. Emission-computed tomography.

 


Thoracic positron emission tomography: preliminary results of a Brazilian experiment

Tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET) no tórax: resultados preliminares de uma experiência brasileira

Mário Terra Filho, Sidney Bombarda, José Soares Júnior, José Cláudio Meneghetti

J Bras Pneumol.2000;26(4):183-188

Abstract PDF PT

New non-invasive methods have been developed to detect lung malignancies. One of them is positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) as a radiotracer. Objective: Evaluate the FDG-PET results performed through a hybrid coincidence-gamma camera in patients with pleuropulmonary infectious diseases or lung tumors. Material and methods: Fifteen patients were evaluated, and divided into: group I - five patients with active lung tuberculosis, and group II - ten patients with possible pleuropulmonary neoplasia. Doses of 185 MBq of FDG were given intravenously, and scans were performed with a two-headed ADAC Vertex Plus camera. Results: In group I all scans were positive. In group II after thoracotomy in nine patients and mediastinoscopy in one, the following diagnoses were observed: two adenocarcinomas, two granulomas, one small cell carcinoma, one large cell carcinoma, one hamartoma, one rounded atelectasis, one mesothelioma, and one antracosis. The scans were positive in six patients (five malignant neoplasias and one granuloma) and negative in the other four cases. Conclusion: The FDG-PET performed through a hybrid camera produces images of quality that permit identification of active infectious process. FDG-PET in association with clinical and radiological exams can differentiate malignant from benign lung neoplasias.

 


Keywords: emission-computed tomography, lung neoplasms, lung diseases

 


 

 


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