Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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The search for the author or contributors found : 13 results

Compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children and adolescents with asthma

Adesão às medidas de controle ambiental em lares de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos

Nulma Souto Jentzsch, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Elza Machado de Melo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(3):189-194

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine, through home visits, the rate of compliance with environmental control measures in the homes of children with asthma. Methods: This study involved 98 asthma patients between the ages of 4 and 15. The parents of those children and adolescents received instruction in how to carry out environmental control measures and were encouraged to perform such measures continuously for a period of 90 days. Home visits, which included direct inspection of the domicile and administration of a questionnaire, were made before and after this 90-day period. In cases of noncompliance, parents were asked to explain why they did not carry out the control measures. Statistical analysis was performed using the McNemar test. Results: Overall compliance with the various items studied was 11.1%, ranging from -4.1% (for curtain control, p = 0.63) to 22.6% (for stuffed toys, p < 0.001). Passive smoking was reduced to 9.7% (p = 0.02). Among the families studied, the mean monthly income was 2.5 times the national minimum wage. When asked why they had not adopted the recommended measures, noncompliant parents gave, among others, the following explanations: "economic hardship" (60.1%); "the measures were too difficult to carry out" (6.1%); "nonparticipation of the father" (4%); and "lack of time on the part of the mother" (4%). Conclusion: Environmental control measures were carried out sporadically, possibly reflecting the influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors.


Keywords: Asthma; Allergens; Environmental exposure; Hypersensivity/prevention & control; Compliance


Asthma in children under five years of age: problems in diagnosis and in inhaled corticosteroid treatment

Asma em menores de cinco anos: dificuldades no diagnóstico e na prescrição da corticoterapia inalatória

Maria Jussara Fernandes Fontes, Maria Teresa Mohallem Fonseca, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Alessandra Gazire Alves Affonso, Geralda Magela Costa Calazans

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(3):244-253

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature, focusing on difficulties encountered in asthma diagnosis and in the establishment of initial inhaled corticosteroid treatment in children under five years of age. The search was limited to studies published between 1991 and 2002 in Portuguese, Spanish, or English and included in the LILACS and MEDLINE databases. Symptoms of asthma, the most common chronic childhood disease, typically appear in the first years of life. There are currently no diagnosis means of making a certain diagnosis of asthma in children under the age of five. Clinical manifestations, when present in toddlers and preschoolers, may require treatment such as that given for asthma, assuming that it is preceded by a critical evaluation. We can conclude that diagnosis of asthma in the first years of life is complex and predominantly clinical. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment is an effective tool, although its risks and benefits must be carefully evaluated.


Keywords: Asthma. Adrenal cortex hormones. Infant. Preschool.


Cell profile of BAL fluid in children and adolescents with and without lung disease

Celularidade do líquido de LBA em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis e com doenças pulmonares

Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Christophe Marguet

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(3):-

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell profiles in healthy children and adolescents, as well as on the use of BAL as a diagnostic and follow-up tool for lung disease patients in this age bracket. To that end, we used the Medline database, compiling studies published between 1989 and 2009 employing the following MeSH descriptors (with Boolean operators) as search terms: bronchoalveolar lavage AND cytology OR cell AND child. In healthy children, the cell profile includes alveolar macrophages (> 80%), lymphocytes (approximately 10%), neutrophils (approximately 2%) and eosinophils (< 1%). The profile varies depending on the disease under study. The number of neutrophils is greater in wheezing children, especially in non-atopic children, as well as in those with pulmonary infectious and inflammatory profiles, including cystic fibrosis and interstitial lung disease. Eosinophil counts are elevated in children/adolescents with asthma and can reach high levels in those with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or eosinophilic syndromes. In a heterogenous group of diseases, the number of lymphocytes can increase. Evaluation of the BAL fluid cell profile, when used in conjunction with clinical and imaging findings, has proven to be an essential tool in the investigation of various lung diseases. Less invasive than transbronchial and open lung biopsies, BAL has great clinical value. Further studies adopting standard international protocols should be carried out. Such studies should involve various age groups and settings in order to obtain reference values for BAL fluid cell profiles, which are necessary for a more accurate interpretation of findings in children and adolescents with lung diseases.


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage; Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/cytology; Child; Adolescent.


Empyema and bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in children under five years of age

Empiema e pneumonia pneumocócica bacterêmica em menores de cinco anos de idade

Maria Regina Alves Cardoso, Cristiana Maria Costa Nascimento-Carvalho, Fernando Ferrero, Eitan Naaman Berezin, Raul Ruvinsky, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Maria Cristina de Cunto Brandileone, Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo March, Ruben Maggi, Jesus Feris-Iglesias, Yehuda Benguigui, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos; the CARIBE group

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(1):73-76

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Patient discharge from the ICU is indicated on the basis of clinical evidence and the result of strategies aimed at improving health care. Nevertheless, some patients might be discharged too early. We attempted to identify risk factors for unplanned ICU readmission, using a score for risk assessment, designated the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer (SWIFT) score. We evaluated 100 patients discharged from an ICU and found that the SWIFT score can be used as a tool for improving the assessment of ICU patients and the appropriateness of ICU discharge, thus preventing readmission.


Keywords: Intensive care units; Risk factors; Patient readmission.


Risk factors for multiple hospital admissions among children and adolescents with asthma

Fatores de risco para readmissão hospitalar de crianças e adolescentes asmáticos

Laura Maria de Lima Belizario Facury Lasmar, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Eugênio Marcos Andrade Goulart, Emília Sakurai

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(5):391-399

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the influence that hospital admission of suckling infants with asthma has on their risk for future admissions for the same cause. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, in which the charts of 202 patients, all less than fifteen years of age, were evaluated. All of the patients had been treated as outpatients in a pediatric pulmonology clinic and had been admitted to the hospital on one or more occasions. A multivariate analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the risk factors associated with multiple hospitalizations. Results: Virtually all of the patients evaluated were hospitalized a second time within 18 months of the first hospitalization. Among the patients first hospitalized at = 12 months of age, the second admission occurred sooner than did that recorded for those first hospitalized at > 12 months of age (p = 0.001). The risk factors found to be associated with multiple hospital admissions were as follows: age at first admission = 12 months (odds ratio: 2.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.18-5.48); age at first admission between 13 and 24 months (odds ratio: 3.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-9.63); and severity of asthma symptoms (odds ratio: 3.86; 95% confidence interval: 2.02-7.40). Conclusion: After the first hospitalization, children with asthma should be closely monitored, since the risk of subsequent admissions is elevated in the first months following discharge, especially among those of less than two years of age. Health care facilities should be organized to confront this problem appropriately and should dispense prophylactic medication more freely.


Keywords: Asthma; Child, hospitalized; Patient readmission; Risk factors


Predictors of hospital admission due to asthma in children and adolescents enrolled in an asthma control program

Fatores preditores de hospitalização por asma em crianças e adolescentes participantes de um programa de controle da asma

Heli Vieira Brandão, Constança Sampaio Cruz, Armênio Guimarães, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Álvaro Augusto Cruz

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(6):700-706

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics and the predictors of hospital admission due to asthma among children and adolescents with asthma under treatment at a referral center. Methods: A retrospective cohort study comprising 151 children and adolescents with asthma, referred from the Unified Health Care System and enrolled in the Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program in the city of Feira de Santana, Brazil, followed for a period of 12 months and receiving asthma medication at no cost. The chi-square test was used in order to determine the associations between the studied variables and the occurrence of hospital admissions, whereas the Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison between the groups of hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized patients. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed in order to determine the predictors of hospital admission. Results: Of the 151 patients evaluated, 8 (5.2%) were hospitalized, in a total of 12 hospital admissions. In the univariate analysis, the only variable found to be a predictive factor was greater asthma severity (OR = 13.3; 95% CI: 2.55-70.1). Conclusions: The fact that, in our study sample, the principal predictor of hospital admission was greater asthma severity, calls for special attention being given to the care of these patients.


Keywords: Asthma; Hospitalization; Health services.


Medications to the north, patients to the south

Medicamentos ao Norte, doentes ao Sul

Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Álvaro Augusto Cruz, Jean Bousquet

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(7):615-617

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Methods of assessing adherence to inhaled corticosteroid therapy in children and adolescents: adherence rates and their implications for clinical practice

Métodos empregados na verificação da adesão à corticoterapia inalatória em crianças e adolescentes: taxas encontradas e suas implicações para a prática clínica

Nulma Souto Jentzsch, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):614-621

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Nonadherence to inhaled corticosteroid therapy is common and has a negative effect on clinical control, as well as increasing morbidity rates, mortality rates and health care costs. This review was conducted using direct searches, together with the following sources: Medline; HighWire; and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database. Searches included articles published between 1992 and 2008. The following methods of assessing adherence, listed in ascending order by degree of objectivity, were identified: patient or family reports; clinical judgment; weighing/dispensing of medication, electronic medication monitoring; and (rarely) biochemical analysis. Adherence rates ranged from 30 to 70%. It is recognized that the degree of adherence determined by patient/family reports or by clinical judgment is exaggerated in comparison with that obtained using electronic medication monitors. Physicians should bear in mind that true adherence rates are lower than those reported by patients, and this should be considered in cases of poor clinical control. Weighing the spray quantifies the medication and infers adherence. However, there can be deliberate emptying of inhalers and medication sharing. Pharmacies provide the dates on which the medication was dispensed and refilled. This strategy is valid and should be used in Brazil. The use of electronic medication monitors, which provide the date and time of each triggering of the medication device, although costly, is the most accurate method of assessing adherence. The results obtained with such monitors demonstrate that adherence was lower than expected. Physicians should improve their knowledge on patient adherence and use accurate methods of assessing such adherence.


Keywords: Patient compliance; Asthma/therapy; Asthma/prevention & control.


Prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with asthma

Prevalência de transtornos emocionais e comportamentais em adolescentes com asma

Cristina Gonçalves Alvim, Janete Ricas, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Laura Maria Belizário de Lima Facury Lasmar, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(4):196-204

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with asthma and to compare it with that of adolescents without asthma. Methods: A transversal study using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, administered to adolescents with or without asthma, ranging from 14 to 16 years of age and randomly selected from schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Results: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders in adolescents with and without asthma was 20.4% (95% CI: 14.5-27.8%) and 9.0% (95% CI: 6.1-12.8%), respectively. Among adolescents with asthma, 56.6% (95% CI: 48.3-64.5%) presented normal scores, and 23.0% (95% CI 16.8-30.7%) presented borderline scores. Among adolescents without asthma, 75.0% (95% CI: 69.7-79.6%) presented normal scores, and 16.0% (95% CI: 12.2-20.7%) presented borderline scores. The median total score on the questionnaire was 14 and 12 among subjects with and without asthma, respectively (p < 0.01). In the final logistic regression model, adjusted for socioeconomic variables, the association between emotional/behavioral disorders and the following variables remained significant: being female (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.10-3.56; p = 0.02) and having asthma (OR = 2.66; 95% CI: 1.52-4.64; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of emotional and behavioral disorders is higher in adolescents with asthma than in those without asthma, underscoring the need for a holistic, interdisciplinary approach.


Keywords: Asthma; Epidemiology; Prevalence; Adolescent; Psychology; Behavioral symptoms.


Prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation in adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis

Prevalência do relato de experimentação de cigarro em adolescentes com asma e rinite alérgica

Silvia de Sousa Campos Fernandes1, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade1, Alessandra Pinheiro Caminhas2, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos1, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina1

J Bras Pneumol.2016;42(2):84-87

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking experimentation among adolescents with asthma or allergic rhinitis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving adolescent students (13-14 years of age) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaires, both of which have been validated for use in Brazil. We calculated the prevalence of smoking experimentation in the sample as a whole, among the students with asthma symptoms, and among the students with allergic rhinitis symptoms, as well as in subgroups according to gender and age at smoking experimentation. Results: The sample comprised 3,325 adolescent students. No statistically significant differences were found regarding gender or age. In the sample as a whole, the prevalence of smoking experimentation was 9.6%. The mean age for smoking experimentation for the first time was 11.1 years of age (range, 5-14 years). Among the adolescents with asthma symptoms and among those with allergic rhinitis symptoms, the prevalence of self-reported smoking experimentation was 13.5% and 10.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The proportion of adolescents with symptoms of asthma or allergic rhinitis who reported smoking experimentation is a cause for concern, because there is strong evidence that active smoking is a risk factor for the occurrence and increased severity of allergic diseases.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Rhinitis/epidemiology; Smoking/epidemiology.


Allergic Rhinitis: epidemiological aspects, diagnosis and treatment

Rinite alérgica: aspectos epidemiológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos

Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Emanuel Savio Cavalcanti Sarinho, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Álvaro Augusto Souza da Cruz Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(4):230-240

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This study was a review of the literature on the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of allergic rhinitis. Bibliographic searches were based on the information contained within the Medline, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature and HighWire databases, covering the last thirty years and using the following search terms: 'allergic rhinitis', 'epidemiology', 'diagnosis' and 'treatment'. Sixty articles were selected. This study describes the increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, its relationship with asthma, the diagnostic criteria and the treatment. The classification of allergic rhinitis and strategies for its treatment are presented. Therapeutic modalities presented and discussed include the administration of antihistamines, corticosteroids, immunotherapy, anti-leukotrienes, sodium cromoglycate and anti-IgE antibodies, as well as minimizing exposure to inhaled allergens. Finally, the importance of the management of allergic rhinitis in public health is emphasized.


Keywords: Rhinitis/therapy; Hypersensitivity; Epidemiology; Diagnosis.


Rhinitis, Sinusitis and Asthma: hard to dissociate?

Rinite, sinusite e asma: indissociáveis?

Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Emanuel Savio Cavalcantio Sarinho, Álvaro Augusto Souza da Cruz Filho, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(4):357-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this study was to review the literature and to discuss epidemiological and physiopathological aspects and therapeutical implications of an unified approach to allergic rhinosinusitis and asthma. The bibliographic survey was based on the information provided by the following databases: Medline, MD Consult, Highwire, Medscape, LILACS and through direct search over thirty years, using the terms allergic rhinitis and asthma. Fifty-five original articles were selected in the no systematically review addressing the issue of clinical association between allergic rhinusinusitis and asthma. It is noteworthy that in the late years, with the use of specific topical medications for the lower airways or else, to the upper airways, the therapeutical approach has been distinct. However, numerous epidemiological surveys, immunopatological and clinical studies demonstrate the inter-relationship between asthma and allergic rhinossinusitis, characterized by: i) allergic rhinitis is associated to asthma and constitute an independent risk factor for its occurrence; ii) the immunopathological characteristics of allergic rhinitis and asthma are similar; iii) allergic rhinitis and asthma are manifestations of a systemic disease; iv) control of rhinitis favors asthma control. taking into consideration the close inter-relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma, the approach to diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of these illnesses should be integrated. Therapeutical options that allow for the simultaneous control of asthma and allergic rhinitis offer advantages related both to costs and tolerability.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma/physiopathology; Asthma/drug therapy; Sinusitis/epidemiology; Sinusitis/drug therapy; Sinusitis/physiopathology; Rhinitis, allergic, perennial


Epidemiological trends of allergic diseases in adolescents

Tendência epidemiológica das prevalências de doenças alérgicas em adolescentes

Silvia de Souza Campos Fernandes1, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade1, Cristina Gonçalves Alvim1, Paulo Augusto Moreira Camargos1, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina1

J Bras Pneumol.2017;43(5):368-372

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To assess the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in adolescents in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 2012 by administering the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, as well as to compare the observed prevalences with those found in studies performed 10 years earlier and employing the same methodology used here. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between May and December of 2012 and involving adolescents in the 13- to 14-year age bracket. Participants were randomly selected from among adolescents studying at public schools in Belo Horizonte and completed the ISAAC questionnaire. Proportions were calculated in order to assess the prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in the sample as a whole, and the chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used in order to compare the prevalences observed in 2012 with those found in 2002. Results: The prevalences of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in 2012 were 19.8%, 35.3%, and 16.3%, respectively, being significantly higher than those found in 2002 (asthma, p = 0.006; allergic rhinitis, p < 0.01; and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, p = 0.002). Conclusions: The prevalences of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis among adolescents in 2012 were found to be high, having increased in comparison with those found 10 years earlier, despite efforts in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.


Keywords: Asthma; Rhinitis, allergic; Prevalence; Adolescent.




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