Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713

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Accuracy of inpatient and outpatient gastric lavage in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children

Acurácia do lavado gástrico realizado em ambiente hospitalar e ambulatorial no diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar em crianças

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Reynaldo Dietze, Renata Peres Lyrio, Solange Alves Vinhas, Moises Palaci, Rodrigo Ribeiro Rodrigues, Claudio Jose Struchiner

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(6):404-411

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare gastric lavage (GL) performed in inpatients with GL performed in outpatients in terms of its accuracy in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in children. Methods: A prospective study was carried out in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from 1999 to 2003. A total of 230 children suspected of having TB (103 inpatients and 127 outpatients) were selected to undergo GL. Those thus diagnosed with TB (n = 53) were divided into two groups: inpatient GL (n = 30) and outpatient GL (n = 23). All 53 children were monitored for 6 months in order to evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis. Accuracy was determined based on any change in diagnosis, cure rate, and the percentage of positive cultures in the two groups studied. Results: The cure rate was 100% in both groups, and there was no change in diagnosis in the 53 children studied. No significant difference was found between the two groups studied in terms of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 0.95-2.27; p = 0.095), although the outpatient group presented a greater rate of positive cultures. Conclusions: Our results show that the accuracy of GL performed in an inpatient setting is similar to that of GL performed in an outpatient setting. This indicates that hospitalization is required only in more severe cases in which GL cannot be performed as an outpatient procedure.

 


Keywords: Gastric lavage; Tuberculosis; Diagnosis.

 


Guided sputum sample collection and culture contamination rates in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB

Associação entre coleta de escarro guiada e taxas de contaminação de culturas para o diagnóstico de TB pulmonar

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Renata Lyrio Peres, Moises Palaci, John L. Johnson, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):460-463

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A comparative study to evaluate contamination in cultures of morning sputum samples, comparing those collected at home under currently recommended conditions and those collected under supervision after patient orientation and education. The home and supervised collection groups produced 43 and 76 sputum samples, respectively. The contamination rate was nearly 3-times higher among samples collected at home than among those collected under supervision (37% vs. 13%, p < 0.05; OR = 0.25). The simple educational and hygiene measures described can decrease the contamination rate among sputum samples collected for diagnostic culture.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Sputum/microbiology; Culture techniques.

 


Atividade bactericida precoce: uma metodologia segura e necessária

Moises Palaci, David Jamil Hadad, Valdério do Valle Dettoni, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2004;30(2):189-191

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Juvenile household contacts aged 15 or younger of patients with pulmonary TB in the greater metropolitan area of Vitória, Brazil: a cohort study

Comunicantes domiciliares jovens de pacientes com TB pulmonar na região da grande Vitória (ES): um estudo de coorte

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Luiza Werner Heringer Vieira, Lucília Pereira Dutra Molina, Rosana Alves, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):359-366

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare clinical, radiological and laboratory aspects of household contacts, aged 15 or younger, of patients presenting a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cohort study comparing children and adolescents (≤ 15 years of age) who were household contacts of TB cases presenting positive sputum smear and positive culture results (exposed group, n = 100) or negative sputum smear and positive culture results (unexposed group, n = 55). All of the contacts were evaluated via the TB control program of a university hospital in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between July of 2003 and December of 2006. Results: Of the 155 minors evaluated, 87 (56.1%) were female and 68 (43.9%) were male. Of those 155, 28 (18%) were aged 5 or younger, 62 (40%) were aged 5-9, and 65 (42%) were aged 10-15. Symptoms of the disease were found in 17 (17%) of the 100 contacts in the exposed group and in 9 (16%) of the 55 in the unexposed group (p = 0.86). Chest X-rays showed alterations in 20 (21%) and 2 (4%) of the contacts in the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively (RR = 6.9; p = 0.004). In the exposed and unexposed groups, respectively, 35 (38%) and 10 (18%) of the contacts presented positive results on the tuberculin skin test (RR = 2.8; p = 0.01). Of the 100 contacts in the exposed group, 5 (5%) were diagnosed with TB, which was not diagnosed in any of those in the unexposed group (p = 0.08). Conclusions: Although no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the incidence of TB, it is of note that there is a greater risk of becoming infected with M. tuberculosis if the bacterial load of the index case is high.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary; Child; Adolescent.

 


Using polymerase chain reaction with primers based on the plcB-plcC intergenic region to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples

Deteção de Mycobacterium tuberculosis em amostras clínicas por reação em cadeia da polimerase utilizando primers baseados na região intergênica plcB-plcC

Hermides Pinto Júnior, Claudia Giuliano Bica, Moisés Palaci, Reynaldo Dietze, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2007;33(4):437-442

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop a system for the molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), constructing primers based on the difference in gene organization of the intergenic region of phospholipase C (plcB-plcC region), which differentiates Mycobacterium tuberculosis from other mycobacteria. Methods: A PCR product of the expected size (432 bp) was obtained from M. tuberculosis and M. africanum only. A total of 33 mycobacterial isolates and 273 clinical samples from patients suspected of having tuberculosis were examined. These were used in the comparative study of the PCR technique versus culture. Results: For PCR versus culture, the data showed 93.8% accuracy (p < 0.0001), 93.1% sensitivity (CI: 88.7-96.0), and 96.4% specificity (CI: 96.1-99.4). The Kappa value (0.82) shows that there was a near-perfect concordance between the two tests. Conclusion: The use of the plcB-plcC region in PCR amplification was found to be an important and reliable tool for the specific diagnosis of tuberculosis in the samples analyzed.

 


Keywords: Polymerase chain reaction; Diagnosis; Tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis

 


Adverse effects of the new tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health

Efeitos adversos causados pelo novo esquema de tratamento da tuberculose preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Letícia Molino Guidoni, Juliana Lopes Favero, David Jamil Hadad, Lucilia Pereira Molino, John L. Jonhson, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2010;36(2):232-238

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the principal adverse effects of the tuberculosis treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Methods: A prospective descriptive study involving 79 tuberculosis patients treated at the Clinical Research Center of the Cassiano Antonio Moraes University Hospital, in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The treatment regimen consisted of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for four months, followed by rifampicin and isoniazid for two months. During the treatment period, the patients were clinically evaluated every week and had a monthly medical visit. Results: The overall incidence of adverse effects was 83.54%. Articular/bone/muscle involvement was the most common, followed by skin involvement (24.94% and 22.09%, respectively). Adverse effects were more common in the second month of treatment (41.59%). Modification of the treatment regimen was unnecessary. One patient required concomitant medication to counter the adverse effects. The cure rate was 100%. Conclusions: The overall incidence of adverse effects related to the new treatment regimen recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health was high. However, none of those effects demanded a change in the regimen, which was effective in the patients evaluated.

 


Keywords: Treatment outcome;Tuberculosis; Antitubercular agents; Adverse drug reaction reporting systems.

 


Factors associated with nonadherence to TB chemoprophylaxis in Vitória, Brazil: a historical cohort study

Fatores associados ao abandono da quimioprofilaxia de TB no município de Vitória (ES): um estudo de coorte histórica

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Ana Paula Brioschi, Letícia Molino Guidoni, Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Geisa Fregona, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):884-891

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the factors associated with nonadherence to TB chemoprophylaxis in patients older than 15 years of age treated via referral TB control programs. Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out based on medical charts related to cases treated via referral TB control programs in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between 2002 and 2007. Cases of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were stratified into two groups: health care workers (HCW group); and individuals who were not health care workers (NHCW group). Results: A total of 395 patients were included in the study: 35 in the HCW group and 360 in the NHCW group. The mean age in the HCW and NHCW groups was 34.8 and 32.4 years, respectively (p = 0.36). Of the 35 patients in the HCW group, 29 (82.9%) were female, compared with 180 (50.0%) of the 360 patients in the NHCW group. In the HCW and NHCW groups, respectively, 15 (42.9%) and 169 (46.9%) of the patients were contacts of TB cases. In addition, 9 (25.7%) and 157 (78.5%) the HCW and NHCW group patients, respectively, were HIV-infected. Nonadherence to chemoprophylaxis was 37.1% and 21.9% in the HCW and NHCW groups, respectively (p = 0.045). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with nonadherence were being a health care worker (OR = 8.60; 95% CI: 2.09-35.41), being HIV-infected (OR = 4.57; 95% CI: 1.2-17.5) and having had contact with a TB patient (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.15-6.12). Conclusions: In order to improve adherence to TB chemoprophylaxis, new TB control program strategies are needed, especially for health care workers and HIV-infected patients.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Chemoprevention; Isoniazid.

 


Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among community health workers involved in TB control

Infecção por Mycobacterium tuberculosis entre agentes comunitários de saúde que atuam no controle da TB

Patrícia Marques Rodrigues, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Andressa Karla Luz de Moraes, Rafael da Cruz Araújo Vieira, Reynaldo Dietze, Rita de Cassia Duarte Lima, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(4):351-358

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Objective: To evaluate the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, using tuberculin skin test, among community health agents (CHAs) monitoring TB patients in the city of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim, Brazil. Methods: We included 30 CHAs acting in the Family Health Program and 30 of their family members residing in the same household. The tuberculin skin test results of each CHA were compared with those of the corresponding family member. Results: Of the 30 CHAs, 27 (90.0%) were female, compared with 23 (76.7%) of the 30 family members (p = 0.299). The mean age of the CHA group and of the family member group was, respectively, 36.8 and 39.7 years. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding the level of education. Regarding M. tuberculosis exposure, the same number of participants in the two groups reported having known or had contact with a TB patient (17 individuals; 56.7%). There was a statistically significant difference regarding positive tuberculin skin test results (26.7% in the CHA group and 3.3% in the family member group; p = 0.011). Conclusions: M. tuberculosis infection was significantly higher among CHAs than among their family members, fueling the debate on the occupational risk involved in the activities of these professionals.

 


Keywords: Community health aides; Tuberculosis; Tuberculin test.

 


Tuberculosis-related mortality in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, 1985-2004

Mortalidade específica por tuberculose no estado do Espírito Santo, no período de 1985 a 2004

Cláudia Maria Marques Moreira, Eliana Zandonade, Reynaldo Dietze, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):601-606

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe tuberculosis-related mortality in Espírito Santo, Brazil, evaluating its tendencies in relation to clinical presentation, gender and age bracket. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study based on secondary data. For the 1985-2004 period, we investigated all deaths of residents of Espírito Santo in which tuberculosis was given as the underlying cause, as reported in the Brazilian National Mortality Database. Results: The adjusted mortality rates for all forms of tuberculosis paralleled the overall mortality rates in the state, decreasing from 5.6/100,000 inhabitants in 1985 to 2.0/100,000 inhabitants in 2004. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the predominant form of the disease (89.7% of tuberculosis-related deaths) throughout the period studied, and the male/ female mortality rate ratio ranged from 1.1 in 1998 to 3.19 in 2004. Conclusions: We observed a decrease in the mortality rates in all age brackets. Predominance of the pulmonary form, male gender and advanced age was similar to that of overall tuberculosis-related mortality in Brazil.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Mortality; Information systems.

 


Epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported among health care workers at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

Perfil epidemiológico dos casos notificados de tuberculose entre os profissionais de saúde no Hospital Universitário em Vitória (ES) Brasil

Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Heleticia Scabelo Galavote, Ana Paula Brioshi, Thamy Lacerda, Geisa Fregona, Valdério do Valle Detoni, Rita de Cássia Duarte Lima, Reynaldo Dietze, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(8):607-613

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of tuberculosis cases reported among health care workers in the Tuberculosis Control Program of the Cassiano Antonio of Moraes University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study of secondary data was conducted between 2002 and 2006. Results: Twenty-five cases of health care workers with tuberculosis were reported: 8 in nursing technicians (32%); 4 in doctors (16%); 3 in nurses (12%); 2 in radiology technicians (8%) and 8 in professionals from other categories (32%). Of those 25 health care workers, 14 (56%) were male and 11 (44%) were female. The incidence of the disease was highest among those from 35 to 39 years of age. The predominant clinical presentation was extrapulmonary (12 cases, 48%), followed by pulmonary (11 cases, 44%) and a combination of the two (2 cases, 8%). Regarding comorbidities, AIDS, alcoholism and smoking, respectively, were present in 33.3% of the study population. Outcomes were as follows: 22 cases of cure (88%); 2 transfers (8%); and 1 death (4%). The proportion of health care workers diagnosed with tuberculosis in the period studied was 2.53%. Conclusions: The results show the need for heath care workers who work in the tuberculosis control program to fill out the field "professional occupation" on the tuberculosis case registry database reporting forms. In addition, this situation draws attention to the need to implement an occupational tuberculosis control program.

 


Keywords: Health profile; Tuberculosis/epidemiology; Health personnel; Prevalence.

 


Directly observed therapy using home-based supervisors for treating tuberculosis in Vitória, Brazil

Tratamento supervisionado em pacientes portadores de tuberculose utilizando supervisores domiciliares em Vitória, Brasil

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Ana Paula Silva, Waleska Meireles, Karina Fiorotti, David Jamil Hadad, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(7):506-513

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the use of family members as supervisors of directly observed therapy (DOT) in patients with tuberculosis.Methods: This was a prospective descriptive study involving patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. The sample comprised 98 patients. A standardized protocol was implemented in order to train the patient and their families. After the training, the patient was allowed to choose either a family member or a health care worker as a supervisor. Absolute and relative frequencies were used in descriptive data analysis. Results: A family member supervisor was chosen by 94 patients (96%). The cure rate was 99%. The partner was chosen by 49% of the patients, and other family members were chosen by 28%. The heath care team needed to take over DOT in 3% of the cases. Regular attendance at follow-up appointments was 67%. It was observed that 24% of the problems in this DOT model referred to the family supervisor forgetting to administer the medication or to the patient forgetting to take it; 39% of the patients forgot to take the medication for one day, and 31% forgot to take it for two days. There was change of supervisor in 9% of the sample, medication was lost by the patient sometime during treatment in 9%, and patient drug intolerance occurred in 8%. Conclusions: DOT supervised by a family member has proven an effective and low-cost technique. However, compliance is not due to one single factor but to the combination of strategies adopted: bus passes; educational measures and especially the individualized approach.

 


Keywords: Directly observed therapy; Tuberculosis; Patient compliance.

 


Tuberculosis in health professionals: a new perspective on an old problem

Tuberculose em profissionais de saúde: um novo olhar sobre um antigo problema

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Juliana Lopes Fávero, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):83-90

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this review was to contribute to the debate on the nosocomial transmission of TB among health professionals in a country where TB is endemic. Prior to 1900, there was no reason to believe that health professionals interacting with TB patients were more susceptible to becoming infected with the bacillus than was the general population. Between 1920 and 1930, various studies showed significant findings regarding the rates of positive tuberculin skin tests among students in the area of health care. However, most clinicians remained skeptical about the susceptibility of health professionals to becoming infected with TB. In the various locales where the treatment of patients with TB has been implemented, health professionals have been described as an especially predisposed population to becoming infected with and developing active TB. It is urgent that the scientific community and health professionals become mobilized, recognizing themselves as a population at risk of developing TB, and that actions be taken in order to minimize the potential risks of acquiring the disease at locales where patients with TB are treated.

 


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Cross infection; Health personnel.

 


 

 


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