Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2014 - Volume 40  - Number 6  (November/December)


Original Article

2 - Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities

Diferenças entre os sexos na percepção de asma e sintomas respiratórios em uma amostra populacional em quatro cidades brasileiras

Laura Russo Zillmer, Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti, Oliver Augusto Nascimento, Federico Montealegre, James Fish, José Roberto Jardim

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):591-598

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. Methods: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age) included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. Results: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68%) were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough) was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. Conclusions: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.


Keywords: Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/prevention & control; Quality of life.


3 - Efficacy and safety of the single-capsule combination of fluticasone/formoterol in patients with persistent asthma: a non-inferiority trial

Eficácia e segurança da associação fluticasona/formoterol em cápsula única em pacientes com asma persistente: estudo de não inferioridade

Marti Antilla, Fábio Castro, Álvaro Cruz, Adalberto Rubin, Nelson Rosário, Rafael Stelmach

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):599-608

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Fluticasone and formoterol are effective in the treatment of asthma. When a corticosteroid alone fails to control asthma, combination therapy is the treatment of choice. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of formulations containing budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FOR), fluticasone alone (FLU), and the single-capsule combination of fluticasone/formoterol (FLU/FOR) on lung function in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, open phase III trial conducted in Brazil. The primary efficacy analysis was the assessment of non-inferiority between FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR combinations regarding FEV1 (in L) at the final visit. The secondary analyses were PEF, level of asthma control, serum cortisol levels, frequency of adverse events, adherence to treatment, and appropriate inhaler use. Results: We randomized 243 patients to three groups: FLU/FOR (n = 79), BUD/FOR (n = 83), and FLU (n = 81). In terms of the mean FEV1 after 12 weeks of treatment, the difference between the FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR groups was 0.22 L (95% CI: −0.06 to 0.49), whereas the difference between the FLU/FOR and FLU groups was 0.26 L (95% CI: −0.002 to 0.52). Non-inferiority was demonstrated by the difference between the lower limits of the two 95% CIs (−0.06 vs. −0.002). The level of asthma control and PEF were significantly greater in the FLU/FOR and BUD/FOR groups than in the FLU group. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding patient adherence, patient inhaler use, or safety profile of the formulations. Conclusions: The single-capsule combination of FLU/FOR showed non-inferiority to the BUD/FOR and FLU formulations regarding efficacy and safety, making it a new treatment option for persistent asthma. ( Identifier:NCT01202084 [])


Keywords: Asthma; Steroids; Bronchodilator agents; Administration, inhalation.


4 - Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension

Disfunção ventricular esquerda em pacientes com suspeita de hipertensão arterial pulmonar

Francisca Gavilanes, José Leonidas Alves Jr, Caio Fernandes, Luis Felipe Lopes Prada, Carlos Viana Poyares Jardim, Luciana Tamie Kato Morinaga, Bruno Arantes Dias, Susana Hoette, Rogerio Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):609-616

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD), significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. Results: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%). The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3%) and 178 (81.7%) were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD) and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant.


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Cardiac catheterization, Ventricular dysfunction, left.


5 - Epidemiological aspects of and risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life

Aspectos epidemiológicos e fatores de risco para sibilância no primeiro ano de vida

Hamilton Rosendo Fogaça, Fernando Augusto de Lima Marson, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Dirceu Solé, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):617-625

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine, in a sample of infants, the prevalence of and risk factors for occasional wheezing (OW) and recurrent wheezing-wheezy baby syndrome (WBS). Methods: Parents of infants (12-15 months of age) completed the International Study of Wheezing in Infants questionnaire. Results: We included 1,269 infants residing in the city of Blumenau, Brazil. Of those, 715 (56.34%) had a history of wheezing, which was more common among boys. The prevalences of OW and WBS were 27.03% (n = 343) and 29.31% (n = 372), respectively. On average, the first wheezing episode occurred at 5.55 ± 2.87 months of age. Among the 715 infants with a history of wheezing, the first episode occurred within the first six months of life in 479 (66.99%), and 372 (52.03%) had had three or more episodes. Factors associated with wheezing in general were pneumonia; oral corticosteroid use; a cold; attending daycare; having a parent with asthma or allergies; mother working outside the home; male gender; no breastfeeding; and mold. Factors associated with WBS were a cold; physician-diagnosed asthma; ER visits; corticosteroid use; pneumonia; bronchitis; dyspnea; attending daycare; bronchodilator use; having a parent with asthma; no breastfeeding; mother working outside the home; and a dog in the household. Conclusions: The prevalence of wheezing in the studied population was high (56.34%). The etiology was multifactorial, and the risk factors were intrinsic and extrinsic (respiratory tract infections, allergies, attending daycare, and early wheezing). The high prevalence and the intrinsic risk factors indicate the need and the opportunity for epidemiological and genetic studies in this population. In addition, mothers should be encouraged to prolong breastfeeding and to keep infants under six months of age out of daycare.


Keywords: Asthma; Prevalence; Risk factors.


6 - Effects of home-based respiratory muscle training in children and adolescents with chronic lung disease

Efeitos do treinamento muscular respiratório domiciliar em crianças e adolescentes com doença pulmonar crônica

Iván Rodríguez, Daniel Zenteno, Carlos Manterola

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):626-633

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Respiratory muscle weakness is a functional repercussion of chronic lung disease (CLD). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of home-based respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children and adolescents with CLD or neuromuscular disease (NMD). Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study involving children and adolescents with CLD or NMD. Before and after 6 months of home-based RMT, we measured respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP), PEF, and peak cough flow (PCF). We made statistical comparisons between the pre-RMT and post-RMT values, as well as evaluating the correlation between the duration and effect of RMT. Results: The study included 29 patients, with a mean age of 12 years (range, 5-17 years), of whom 18 (62.1%) were male. The CLD group comprised 11 patients (37.9%), and the NMD group comprised 18 (62.1%). The mean duration of the RMT was 60 weeks (range, 46-90 weeks) in the CLD group and 39 weeks (range, 24-89 weeks) in the NMD group. In comparison with the pre-RMT values, the post-RMT values for MIP and MEP were significantly higher in both groups, whereas those for PEF and PCF were significantly higher only in the NMD group. We found no correlation between the duration and the effect of RMT. Conclusions: Home-based RMT appears to be an effective strategy for increasing respiratory muscle strength in children and adolescents with CLD or NMD, although it increased the ability to cough effectively only in those with NMD.


Keywords: Breathing exercises; Cystic fibrosis; Bronchiolitis obliterans; Neuromuscular diseases; Cough.


7 - Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents

Correlatos de experimentação e consumo atual de cigarros entre adolescentes

Amanda Gimenes Bonilha, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Mayara Piani Sicchieri, Jorge Alberto Achcar, Antonio Luiz Rodrigues-Júnior, José Baddini-Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):634-642

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. Methods: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. Results: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2  1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). Conclusions: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence.


Keywords: Smoking; Tobacco use; Adolescent behavior; Stress, psychological.


8 - Quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirate and BAL fluid samples in the management of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia: a randomized clinical trial

Cultura quantitativa de amostras de aspirado endotraqueal e lavado broncoalveolar no manejo de pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: um ensaio clínico randomizado

Ricardo de Amorim Corrêa, Carlos Michel Luna, José Carlos Fernandez Versiani dos Anjos, Eurípedes Alvarenga Barbosa, Cláudia Juliana de Rezende, Adriano Pereira Rezende, Fernando Henrique Pereira, Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):643-651

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare 28-day mortality rates and clinical outcomes in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to the diagnostic strategy used. Methods: This was a prospective randomized clinical trial. Of the 73 patients included in the study, 36 and 37 were randomized to undergo BAL or endotracheal aspiration (EA), respectively. Antibiotic therapy was based on guidelines and was adjusted according to the results of quantitative cultures. Results: The 28-day mortality rate was similar in the BAL and EA groups (25.0% and 37.8%, respectively; p = 0.353). There were no differences between the groups regarding the duration of mechanical ventilation, antibiotic therapy, secondary complications, VAP recurrence, or length of ICU and hospital stay. Initial antibiotic therapy was deemed appropriate in 28 (77.8%) and 30 (83.3%) of the patients in the BAL and EA groups, respectively (p = 0.551). The 28-day mortality rate was not associated with the appropriateness of initial therapy in the BAL and EA groups (appropriate therapy: 35.7% vs. 43.3%; p = 0.553; and inappropriate therapy: 62.5% vs. 50.0%; p = 1.000). Previous use of antibiotics did not affect the culture yield in the EA or BAL group (p = 0.130 and p = 0.484, respectively). Conclusions: In the context of this study, the management of VAP patients, based on the results of quantitative endotracheal aspirate cultures, led to similar clinical outcomes to those obtained with the results of quantitative BAL fluid cultures. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - ReBEC; identification number RBR-86DCDX [])


Keywords: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/diagnosis; Respiratory aspiration; Pneumonia, ventilator-associated.


9 - Facial pressure zones of an oronasal interface for noninvasive ventilation: a computer model analysis

Pontos de tensão de uma interface oronasal para ventilação não invasiva: uma análise através de um modelo computacional

Luana Souto Barros, Pedro Talaia, Marta Drummond, Renato Natal-Jorge

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):652-657

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Vídeo

Objective: To study the effects of an oronasal interface (OI) for noninvasive ventilation, using a three-dimensional (3D) computational model with the ability to simulate and evaluate the main pressure zones (PZs) of the OI on the human face. Methods: We used a 3D digital model of the human face, based on a pre-established geometric model. The model simulated soft tissues, skull, and nasal cartilage. The geometric model was obtained by 3D laser scanning and post-processed for use in the model created, with the objective of separating the cushion from the frame. A computer simulation was performed to determine the pressure required in order to create the facial PZs. We obtained descriptive graphical images of the PZs and their intensity. Results: For the graphical analyses of each face-OI model pair and their respective evaluations, we ran 21 simulations. The computer model identified several high-impact PZs in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. The variation in soft tissue depth had a direct impact on the amount of pressure applied (438-724 cmH2O). Conclusions: The computer simulation results indicate that, in patients submitted to noninvasive ventilation with an OI, the probability of skin lesion is higher in the nasal bridge and paranasal regions. This methodology could increase the applicability of biomechanical research on noninvasive ventilation interfaces, providing the information needed in order to choose the interface that best minimizes the risk of skin lesion.


Keywords: Noninvasive ventilation; Computer simulation; Respiration, artificial.


Review Article

10 - Impact of the type of mask on the effectiveness of and adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea

O impacto do tipo de máscara na eficácia e na adesão ao tratamento com pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas da apneia obstrutiva do sono

Rafaela Garcia Santos de Andrade, Vivien Schmeling Piccin, Juliana Araújo Nascimento, Fernanda Madeiro Leite Viana, Pedro Rodrigues Genta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):658-668

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although CPAP was originally applied with a nasal mask, various interfaces are currently available. This study reviews theoretical concepts and questions the premise that all types of interfaces produce similar results. We revised the evidence in the literature about the impact that the type of CPAP interface has on the effectiveness of and adherence to OSA treatment. We searched the PubMed database using the search terms "CPAP", "mask", and "obstructive sleep apnea". Although we identified 91 studies, only 12 described the impact of the type of CPAP interface on treatment effectiveness (n = 6) or adherence (n = 6). Despite conflicting results, we found no consistent evidence that nasal pillows and oral masks alter OSA treatment effectiveness or adherence. In contrast, most studies showed that oronasal masks are less effective and are more often associated with lower adherence and higher CPAP abandonment than are nasal masks. We concluded that oronasal masks can compromise CPAP OSA treatment adherence and effectiveness. Further studies are needed in order to understand the exact mechanisms involved in this effect.


Keywords: Sleep apnea, obstructive; Continuous positive airway pressure; Masks.


Case Report

11 - Infected tracheal diverticulum: a rare association with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

Divertículo da traqueia infectado: um caso de associação rara com deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina

Beatriz Amaral, Sónia Silva, Salvato Feijó

J Bras Pneumol.2014;40(6):669-672

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged.


Keywords: Tracheal diseases; Pulmonary emphysema; Diverticulum; alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.


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