Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2012 - Volume 38  - Number 5  (September/October)

Original Article

2 - Muscle strength as a determinant of oxygen uptakeefficiency and maximal metabolic response inpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD

Força muscular como determinante da eficiênciado consumo de oxigênio e da máxima resposta metabólicaao exercício em pacientes com DPOC leve/moderada

Paulo de Tarso Guerrero Müller, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas,Luiz Armando Pereira Patusco

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):541-549

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the behavior of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) with that of oxygen uptake at peak exertion (VO2peak). Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study involving 21 patients (15 men) with mild-to-moderate COPD undergoing spirometry, handgrip strength (HGS) testing, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and determination of lactate at peak exertion (LACpeak). Results: Mean weight was 66.7 ± 13.6 kg, and mean age was 60.7 ± 7.8 years. With the exception of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio (75.8 ± 18.6% of predicted and 56.6 ± 8.8%, respectively), all spirometric variables were normal, as was HGS. The patients exhibited significant metabolic and hemodynamic stress, as evidenced by the means (% of predicted) for VO2peak (93.1 ± 15.4), maximum HR (92.5 ± 10.4), and OUES (99.4 ± 24.4), as well as for the gas exchange rate (1.2 ± 0.1). The correlation between VO2peak and OUES was significant (r = 0.747; p < 0.0001). The correlation between HGS and VO2peak (r = 0.734; pX< 0.0001) was more significant than was that between HGS and OUES (r = 0.453; p < 0.05). Similar results were found regarding the correlations of VO2peak and OUES with MIP. Although LACpeak correlated significantly with VO2peak (r = −0.731; p < 0.0001), only LACpeak/maximum power correlated significantly with OUES (r = −0.605; p = 0.004). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, in mild-to-moderate COPD, VO2 determinants other than overall muscle strength have a greater impact on OUES than on VO2peak.


Keywords: Respiratory function tests; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Muscle strength; Oxygen consumption.


3 - Prevalence and duration of social security benefits allowed to workers with asthma in Brazil in 2008

Prevalência e duração dos benefícios auxílio-doença decorrentes de asma no Brasil em 2008

Anadergh Barbosa de Abreu Branco, Simone de Andrade Goulart Ildefonso

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):550-558

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence and duration of social security benefit (SSB) claims granted to registered workers with asthma in Brazil by the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security in 2008. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study, based on information obtained from the Brazilian Unified Benefit System database, on the number of SSB claims granted to registered workers with asthma in 2008. The reference population was the monthly mean number of workers registered in the Brazilian Social Registry Database in 2008. The variables studied were type of economic activity, gender, age, and type/duration of the SSB allowance. The relationship between work and asthma was evaluated by the prevalence ratio (PR) between work-related and non-work-related SSB claims for asthma. Results: In 2008, 2,483 SSB claims were granted for asthma, with a prevalence of 7.5 claims per 100,000 registered workers. The prevalence was higher among females than among males (PR = 2.1 between the sexes). Workers  40 years of age were 2.5 times more likely to be granted an SSB allowance for asthma than were younger workers. The prevalence was highest among workers engaged in the following types of economic activity: sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing (78.8, 22.4, and 22.2 claims/100,000 registered workers, respectively). The median (interquartile range) duration of SSB claims for asthma was 49 (28-87) days. Conclusions: Asthma is a major cause of sick leave, and its etiology has a strong occupational component. This has a major impact on employers, employees, and the social security system. Being female, being  40 years of age, and working in the areas of sewage, wood and wood product manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing increase the chance of sick leave due to asthma.


Keywords: Asthma; Social security; Prevalence; Occupational exposure; Occupational health.


4 - Analysis and validation of probabilistic models for predicting malignancy in solitary pulmonary nodules in a population in Brazil

Análise e validação de modelos probabilísticos de malignidade de nódulo pulmonar solitário em uma população no Brasil

Cromwell Barbosa de Carvalho Melo, João Aléssio Juliano Perfeito, Danilo Félix Daud, Altair da Silva Costa Júnior, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Luiz Eduardo Villaça Leão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):559-565

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze clinical and radiological findings that influence the pathological diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) and to compare/validate two probabilistic models for predicting SPN malignancy in patients with SPN in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 110 patients diagnosed with SPN and submitted to resection of SPN at a tertiary hospital between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics studied were gender, age, presence of systemic comorbidities, history of malignancy prior to the diagnosis of SPN, histopathological diagnosis of SPN, smoking status, smoking history, and time since smoking cessation. The radiological characteristics studied, in relation to the SPN, were presence of spiculated margins, maximum transverse diameter, and anatomical location. Two mathematical models, created in 1997 and 2007, respectively, were used in order to determine the probability of SPN malignancy. Results: We found that SPN malignancy was significantly associated with age (p = 0.006; OR = 5.70 for age > 70 years), spiculated margins (p = 0.001), and maximum diameter of SPN (p = 0.001; OR = 2.62 for diameters > 20 mm). The probabilistic model created in 1997 proved to be superior to that created in 2007-area under the ROC curve, 0.79 ± 0.44 (95% CI: 0.70 0.88) vs. 0.69 ± 0.50 (95% CI: 0.59-0.79). Conclusions: Advanced age, greater maximum SPN diameter, and spiculated margins were significantly associated with the diagnosis of SPN malignancy. Our analysis shows that, although both mathematical models were effective in determining SPN malignancy in our population, the 1997 model was superior.


Keywords: Solitary Pulmonary Nodule; Risk Factors; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung.


5 - Electric Ventilation: indications for and technical aspects of diaphragm pacing stimulation surgical implantation

Ventilação elétrica: indicações e aspectos técnicos do implante cirúrgico do marca-passo de estimulação diafragmática

Miguel Lia Tedde, Raymond P Onders, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Silvia Gelas Lage, Gerson Ballester, Mario Wilson Iersolino Brotto, Erica Mie Okumura, Fabio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):566-572

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Patients with high cervical spinal cord injury are usually dependent on mechanical ventilation support, which, albeit life saving, is associated with complications and decreased life expectancy because of respiratory infections. Diaphragm pacing stimulation (DPS), sometimes referred to as electric ventilation, induces inhalation by stimulating the inspiratory muscles. Our objective was to highlight the indications for and some aspects of the surgical technique employed in the laparoscopic insertion of the DPS electrodes, as well as to describe five cases of tetraplegic patients submitted to the technique. Methods: Patient selection involved transcutaneous phrenic nerve studies in order to determine whether the phrenic nerves were preserved. The surgical approach was traditional laparoscopy, with four ports. The initial step was electrical mapping in order to locate the "motor points" (the points at which stimulation would cause maximal contraction of the diaphragm). If the diaphragm mapping was successful, four electrodes were implanted into the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, two on each side, to stimulate the branches of the phrenic nerve. Results: Of the five patients, three could breathe using DPS alone for more than 24 h, one could do so for more than 6 h, and one could not do so at all. Conclusions: Although a longer follow-up period is needed in order to reach definitive conclusions, the initial results have been promising. At this writing, most of our patients have been able to remain ventilator-free for long periods of time.


Keywords: Spinal cord injuries; Quadriplegia; Respiration, artificial; Pacemaker, artificial; Diaphragm.


6 - Quantitative assessment of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating in patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis

Avaliação quantitativa da intensidade da transpiração palmar e plantar em pacientes portadores de hiperidrose palmoplantar primária

Bruno Yoshihiro Parlato Sakiyama, Thaís Vera Monteiro, Augusto Ishy, José Ribas Milanez de Campos, Paulo Kauffman, Nelson Wolosker

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):573-578

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare individuals with and without hyperhidrosis in terms of the intensity of palmar and plantar sweating. Methods: We selected 50 patients clinically diagnosed with palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and 25 normal individuals as controls. We quantified sweating using a portable noninvasive electronic device that has relative humidity and temperature sensors to measure transepidermal water loss. All of the individuals had a body mass index of 20-25 kg/cm2. Subjects remained at rest for 20-30 min before the measurements in order to reduce external interference. The measurements were carried out in a climate-controlled environment (21-24°C). Measurements were carried out on the hypothenar region on both hands and on the medial plantar region on both feet. Results: In the palmoplantar hyperhidrosis group, the mean transepidermal water loss on the hands and feet was 133.6 ± 51.0 g/m2/h and 71.8 ± 40.3 g/m2/h, respectively, compared with 37.9 ± 18.4 g/m2/h and 27.6 ± 14.3 g/m2/h, respectively, in the control group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001 for hands and feet). Conclusions: This method proved to be an accurate and reliable tool to quantify palmar and plantar sweating when performed by a trained and qualified professional.


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Sweat; Dermatology/instrumentation.


7 - Responsiveness of the six-minute step test to a physical training program in patients with COPD

Responsividade do teste do degrau de seis minutos a um programa de treinamento físico em pacientes com DPOC

Kamilla Tays Marrara, Diego Marmorato Marino, Maurício Jamami, Antônio Delfino de Oliveira Junior, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):579-587

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the responsiveness of the six-minute step test (6MST) to an aerobic physical training program (PTP) and to determine the efficacy of the PTP regarding spirometric variables during the 6MST, as well as physical performance, sensation of dyspnea, and SpO2 during the 6MST and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), in patients with COPD. Methods: This was a controlled, prospective randomized study involving patients clinically diagnosed with COPD, with an FEV1/FVC ratio < 70%, and having been clinically stable in the last two months. The patients were randomized to undergo a PTP on a treadmill, three times a week, for six weeks (PTP group) or not (control group). Histories were taken from all of the patients, who received regular respiratory therapy during the study period, undergoing physical examination and spirometry before and after bronchodilator use; incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the 6MST; and the 6MWT. Results: Of the 36 patients that completed the study, 21 and 15 were in the PTP and control groups, respectively. In the PTP group, there was a significant increase in the number of steps climbed during the 6MST and in the six-minute walk distance (in m and % of predicted), as well as a significant decrease in the sensation of dyspnea during the 6MWT. Conclusions: The 6MST showed responsiveness to the PTP. However, the 6MWT appears to be more responsive to the PTP proposed.


Keywords: Exercise test; Exercise; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


8 - Maternal malnutrition during lactation in Wistar rats: effects on elastic fibers of the extracellular matrix in the trachea of offspring

Desnutrição materna durante a lactação em ratos Wistar: efeitos sobre as fibras elásticas da matriz extracelular na traqueia dos filhotes

Filipe Moreira de Andrade, Luiz Felippe Judice, Gilberto Perez Cardoso, Rafael Cisne, Cristiane da Fonte Ramos, Marcio Antonio Babinski

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):588-594

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate the effects of maternal protein malnutrition during lactation on the elastic fibers in the tracheas of Wistar rat pups. Methods: At delivery, 12 male pups of two Wistar rat dams were equally divided into two groups: control, in which the dam received water and standard rat chow ad libitum during lactation; and protein-restricted (PR), in which the dam received water ad libitum and an isoenergetic PR diet (8% protein). At 21 days of age, the pups were killed and their tracheas were excised. The elastic fibers were stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin (after oxidation) and evaluated under light microscopy. Morphometric determinations were performed by stereology, with the point-counting method, and expressed as volumetric densities. Results: Elastic fibers, most having a longitudinal distribution, were identified beneath the tracheal mucosa. In addition, well-defined circular layers of elastic fibers were found around the inner and outer surfaces of the cartilaginous ring. There were no differences between the groups regarding the organization and distribution of the elastic fibers. The volumetric density of the elastic fibers of the pups in the control and PR groups was 2.46 ± 0.99% and 3.25 ± 1.13%, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The volumetric density of elastic fibers appears to be greater in rat pups breastfed by dams receiving a PR diet than in those breastfed by dams receiving a normal diet.


Keywords: Trachea/growth and development; Trachea/anatomy and histology; Extracellular matrix; Airway remodeling; Malnutrition.


9 - Proposed short-term model of acute allergic response, without adjuvant use, in the lungs of mice

Proposta de um modelo murino de curta duração de resposta pulmonar alérgica aguda sem utilização de adjuvante

Andrea Mendonça Rodrigues, Camila Zanelatto Parreira Schmidt, Lucien Peroni Gualdi, Raquel Giacomelli Cao, Rodrigo Godinho de Souza, Ana Cláudia Pereira, Nailê Karine Nuñez, Alisson Passos Schleich, Paulo Márcio Condessa Pitrez

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):595-604

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine whether a short-term protocol using subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin, without the use of adjuvants, would induce an eosinophilic response in the lungs of mice similar to that observed in previous, well-established protocols. Methods: Adult female BALB/c mice were randomized and divided into groups according to the number of sensitizations with ovalbumin and the number/dosage of intranasal ovalbumin challenges. The short-term protocol (10 days) consisted of one sensitization with ovalbumin and three ovalbumin challenges (100 µg). Total and differential cell counts in BAL fluid, levels of eosinophil peroxidase in lung tissue, and histopathological examination of the lungs were performed 24 h after the last ovalbumin challenge. Results: No significant differences were found among the groups regarding the variables studied. The short-term protocol, as well as the other protocols studied, induced an eosinophilic response similar to that obtained in the positive control. Conclusions: Subcutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin and without the use of adjuvants resulted in a significant allergic response in the lungs of mice, even in the short-term protocol group. Our findings suggest that this short-term protocol can be used as a first-line pre-clinical test for the study of new medications, reducing the costs and observation periods.


Keywords: Ovalbumin; Mice; Asthma.


10 - Comparisons among parameters of maximal respiratory pressures in healthy subjects

Comparação entre parâmetros de pressões respiratórias máximas em indivíduos saudáveis

Cristina Martins Coelho, Rosa Maria de Carvalho, David Sérgio Adães Gouvêa, José Marques Novo Júnior

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):605-613

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To investigate four parameters defining maximal respiratory pressures and to evaluate their correlations and agreements among those parameters for the determination of MIP and MEP. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 healthy, well-nourished males and females. The mean age was 23.08 ± 2.5 years. Measurements were carried out using a pressure transducer, and the estimated values for the parameters peak pressure (Ppeak), plateau pressure (Pplateau), mean maximal pressure (Pmean), and pressure according to the area (Parea) were determined with an algorithm developed for the study. To characterize the study sample, we used descriptive statistics, followed by repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test or by the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon post hoc test, as well as by Pearson's or Spearman's correlation coefficients, depending on the normality of the data. The agreement between the variables was assessed with Bland  Altman plots. Results: There were significant differences among all of the parameters studied for MIP (Ppeak = 95.69 ± 27.89 cmH2O; Parea = 88.53 ± 26.45 cmH2O; Pplateau = 82.48 ± 25.11 cmH2O; Pmean = 89.01 ± 26.41 cmH2O; p < 0.05 for all) and for MEP (Ppeak = 109.98 ± 40.67 cmH2O; Parea = 103.85 ± 36.63 cmH2O; Pplateau = 98.93 ± 32.10 cmH2O; Pmean = 104.43 ± 36.74 cmH2O; p < 0.0083 for all). Poor agreement was found among almost all of the parameters. Higher pressure values resulted in larger differences between the variables. Conclusions: The maximal respiratory pressure parameters evaluated do not seem to be interchangeable, and higher pressure values result in larger differences among the parameters.


Keywords: Respiratory system; Muscle strength; Respiratory function tests.


11 - Factors associated with complications of community-acquired pneumonia in preschool children

Fatores associados às complicações em crianças pré-escolares com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade

Pollyana Garcia Amorim, André Moreno Morcillo, Antônia Teresinha Tresoldi, Andréa de Melo Alexandre Fraga, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Emílio Carlos Elias Baracat

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):614-621

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify socioeconomic factors and clinical factors associated with the development of complications in preschool children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study involving children (12-59 months of age) diagnosed with CAP and admitted to the pediatric wards of two hospitals in the metropolitan area of Campinas, Brazil. Children with cystic fibrosis, heart disease, pulmonary malformations, neurological disorders, or genetic diseases were excluded. The diagnosis of CAP was based on clinical and radiological findings. Data were collected from the medical records and with a semi-structured questionnaire. The subjects were divided into two groups (complicated and uncomplicated CAP). Socioeconomic and clinical variables were compared, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: Of the 63 children included, 29 and 34, respectively, presented with uncomplicated and complicated CAP. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding age at admission, gestational age, birth weight, gender, or socioeconomic variables. Significant differences were found between the groups regarding history of pneumonia (p = 0.03), previous antibiotic therapy (p = 0.004), time elapsed since the onset of CAP (p = 0.01), duration of fever prior to admission (p < 0.001), duration of antibiotic therapy (p < 0.001), and length of hospital stay (p < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only duration of fever prior to admission remained in the model (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.36-2.84; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Biological variables, especially duration of fever prior to admission, appear to be associated with the development of complications in children with CAP.


Keywords: Community-acquired infections; Pneumonia; Pleural Effusion.


12 - Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis among patients seeking medical attention at referral clinics for tuberculosis

Fatores associados à tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes que procuraram serviços de saúde de referência para tuberculose

Cid Carlos Soares de Alcântara, Afrânio Lineu Kritski, Valéria Goes Ferreira, Mônica Cardoso Façanha, Ricardo Soares Pontes, Rosa Salani Mota, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva Leitão

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):622-629

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The identification of behavioral and clinical factors that are associated with pulmonary tuberculosis might improve the detection and treatment of the disease, thereby reducing its duration and transmission. Our objective was to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors that are associated with the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between April of 2008 and March of 2009 at three health care clinics in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. We selected 233 patients older than 14 years of age who spontaneously sought medical attention and presented with cough for ≥ 2 weeks. Sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected. Sputum smear microscopy for AFB and mycobacterial culture were also carried out, as were tuberculin skin tests and chest X-rays. The patients were divided into two groups (with and without pulmonary tuberculosis). The categorical variables were compared by the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression analysis when the variables were considered significant. Results: The prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 41.2%. The unadjusted OR showed that the following variables were statistically significant risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: fever (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.34-4.30), anorexia (OR = 3.69; 95% CI, 2.03-6.75), and weight loss (OR = 3.37; 95% CI, 1.76-6.62). In the multivariate analysis, only weight loss (OR = 3.31; 95% CI, 1.78-6.14) was significantly associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusions: In areas with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, weight loss could be used as an indicator of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with chronic cough for ≥ 2 weeks.


Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Tuberculosis, pulmonary/epidemiology; Risk factors.


Brief Communication

13 - Correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide and resistance to other antituberculosis drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated at a referral hospital

Correlação entre a resistência a pirazinamida e a resistência a outros fármacos antituberculose em cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoladas em um hospital de referência

Leila de Souza Fonseca, Anna Grazia Marsico, Gisele Betzler de Oliveira Vieira, Rafael da Silva Duarte, Maria Helena Féres Saad, Fernanda de Carvalho Queiroz Mello

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):630-633

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The correlation between resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and resistance to other first-line antituberculosis drugs was investigated in 395 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from clinical specimens, representing 14% of the overall number of M. tuberculosis isolates obtained between 2003 and 2008 at the laboratory of a referral university hospital for tuberculosis. A high correlation was found between resistance to PZA and multidrug resistance, as well as between PZA resistance and resistance to rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol (p < 0.01 for all). These results highlight the importance of performing PZA susceptibility testing prior to the prescription of this drug in order to treat drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/drug therapy; Tuberculosis/microbiology; Antibiotics, antitubercular.


Special Article

14 - Pulmonary research recently published in Brazilian journals

Pesquisas em pneumologia recentemente publicadas em revistas brasileiras

Ariane Maris Gomes, Daniela Aquemi Higa

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):634-642

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

We reviewed original articles in the field of pulmonary medicine that had been recently published in 12 Brazilian journals-general or specialty journals-excluding the Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology. All were journals indexed for the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge. The selection of articles was based on the "continuously variable rating" concept. We have organized the articles by category.


Keywords: Pulmonary medicine; Medical oncology; Research; Infectious disease medicine.


Review Article

15 - Air pollution and the respiratory system

A poluição do ar e o sistema respiratório

Marcos Abdo Arbex, Ubiratan de Paula Santos, Lourdes Conceição Martins, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Alfésio Luis Ferreira Braga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):643-655

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Over the past 250 years-since the Industrial Revolution accelerated the process of pollutant emission, which, until then, had been limited to the domestic use of fuels (mineral and vegetal) and intermittent volcanic emissions-air pollution has been present in various scenarios. Today, approximately 50% of the people in the world live in cities and urban areas and are exposed to progressively higher levels of air pollutants. This is a non-systematic review on the different types and sources of air pollutants, as well as on the respiratory effects attributed to exposure to such contaminants. Aggravation of the symptoms of disease, together with increases in the demand for emergency treatment, the number of hospitalizations, and the number of deaths, can be attributed to particulate and gaseous pollutants, emitted by various sources. Chronic exposure to air pollutants not only causes decompensation of pre-existing diseases but also increases the number of new cases of asthma, COPD, and lung cancer, even in rural areas. Air pollutants now rival tobacco smoke as the leading risk factor for these diseases. We hope that we can impress upon pulmonologists and clinicians the relevance of investigating exposure to air pollutants and of recognizing this as a risk factor that should be taken into account in the adoption of best practices for the control of the acute decompensation of respiratory diseases and for maintenance treatment between exacerbations.


Keywords: Respiratory System; Air pollution; Pregnancy; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Asthma; Respiratory tract Infections.


16 - The chest and aging: radiological findings

O tórax e o envelhecimento: manifestações radiológicas

Bruno Hochhegger, Gustavo Pontes de Meireles, Klaus Irion, Gláucia Zanetti, Eduardo Garcia, José Moreira, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):656-665

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In the elderly (conventionally defined as individuals  60 years of age), it is often difficult to establish what normality is, because of the numerous anatomical and physiological modifications that occur during the aging process. As a result, the greatest challenge is to differentiate between the normal aging process and the onset of disease. Healthy elderly people commonly present borderline findings on chest imaging. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the subject, covering the period between 1950 and 2011, including articles in Portuguese, English, French, Italian, and Spanish. We searched the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, using the search terms "age", "aging", "lung", "thorax", "chest", "X-ray", "radiography", "pulmonary", and "computed tomography"-as well as their corresponding translations-in various combinations. We included only original or review articles on aging-related chest imaging findings. In broad terms, aging results in physiological modifications that must be recognized so as not to be erroneously interpreted as pathological.


Keywords: Aging; Thorax; Lung; Diagnostic imaging.


Case Report

17 - Hemophagocytic syndrome due to pulmonary sarcoidosis

Síndrome hemofagocítica devido a sarcoidose pulmonar

Thiago Prudente Bártholo, José Gustavo Pugliese, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Vinicius Lemos da Silva, Cláudia Henrique da Costa, Rogério Rufino

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):667-671

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare clinical condition, it is associated with high mortality and the number of cases described in the literature has progressively increased. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome is made on the basis of a finding of hemophagocytosis. Sarcoidosis is a highly prevalent disease whose course and prognosis might correlate with the initial clinical presentation and the extent of the disease. We report the case of a patient with long-standing sarcoidosis who presented with intermittent fever and fatigue. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome was made by bone marrow aspiration, and specific treatment was ineffective. This is the third case of sarcoidosis-related hemophagocytic syndrome reported in the literature and the first reported in Latin America. All three cases had unfavorable outcomes.


Keywords: Lymphohistiocytosis, hemophagocytic; Ferritins; Sarcoidosis, pulmonary; Macrophage activation syndrome.


Letters to the Editor

18 - Tailored intracuff pressures

Valores individualizados de pressão intracuff

Armando Carlos Franco de Godoy, Mariana Del Grossi Moura, Monique Louise Adame, Gustavo Pereira Fraga

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):666-671

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19 - Osteitis in a female infant after vaccination with BCG Moreau in the neonatal period

Osteíte por BCG Moreau em uma menina vacinada ao nascer

Nelson Morrone, Cláudio do Amaral Antonio, Claudio Santilli, Beatriz Tavares Costa-Carvalho, Denise Rodrigues

J Bras Pneumol.2012;38(5):674-676

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Letters to the Editor


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