Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2005 - Volume 31  - Number 2  (March/April)

2 - Pursuing MEDLINE

Perseguindo o MEDLINE

José Antônio Baddini Martinez

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):95-96

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Original Article

3 - Pulmonary function tests in asthmatic children and adolescents: Comparison between a microspirometer and a conventional spirometer

Avaliação funcional pulmonar em crianças e adolescentes asmáticos: comparação entre a micro espirometria e a espirometria convencional

Lúcia Bartmann Wild, Alexandre Simões Dias, Gilberto Bueno Fischer, Daniele Ruzzante Rech

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):97-102

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Background: Spirometry is widely used in the diagnosis and quantification of respiratory disorders such as asthma. A microspirometer is a portable and easily used apparatus that can substitute for a regular spirometer, although there is little evidence of its accuracy. Objective: To compare the microspirometer to a regular spirometer for use in asthmatic children and adolescents. Methods: The instruments used were a Micro Spirometer, manufactured by Micro Medical, and a conventional Cosmed Pony Graphic 3.5 spirometer, both with turbinometers (flow sensors). The study sample consisted of 62 children and adolescents, of both genders, clinically diagnosed with asthma and under treatment at a pulmonology clinic. Ages ranged from 5 and 16 years. All spirometric tests were carried out according to the guidelines established by the American Thoracic Society and by the Associacão Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Brazilian Technical Standards Association). For each patient, microspirometry was performed first, followed by conventional spirometry. The parameters analyzed in both devices were forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow. Data were analyzed using the Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test. Results: Strong correlations were found between the two devices in the parameters analyzed: forced expiratory volume in one second: r = 0.97; forced vital capacity: r = 0.97; and peak expiratory flow: r = 0.91. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the microspirometer is a useful diagnostic tool that can be used when a conventional spirometer is unavailable.


Keywords: Key words: Asthma. Spirometry. Micro spirometer. Puomonary ventilation.


4 - Prevalence of asthma symptoms and treatment of children and adolescents from 2 to 14 years of age in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Prevalência de sintomas de asma e tratamento de crianças e adolescentes de 2 a 14 anos no Campus Aproximado da PUCRS

Brasília Itália C. S. Ache, Fabiane Kahan, Jussara Fiterman

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):103 -110

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Background: In recent decades, the prevalence of asthma has increased. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children and adolescents from 2 to 14 years of age living in Porto Alegre (in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and to determine any potential correlations with socioeconomic profile, treatment and smoking in the home. Methods: A transversal study based on interviews of all families seeking medical attention in June of 2000. Results: The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 49.5%. In 66.8% of families, total income was less than four times the minimum wage, and in more than 50% of homes, the parents had had less than five years of schooling. In 98.5%, prophylactic asthma treatment was not used. In the 174 families studied, 38.7% of mothers and 43.7% of fathers were smokers (32.7% overall). Correlations were found between the following variables: exposure to smoking in the home and number of asthma attacks in the last year (p = 0.02; RR = 2.9; CI: 1.1 - 4.5); maternal level of education and number of attacks in the last year (p = 0.03; RR = 2.03; CI: 1.01 - 4.19); close living quarters and number of attacks in the last year among children exposed to second-hand smoke (p = 0.04; RR = 2.7; CI: 1.4 - 5.1); hospitalization and number of attacks in the last year (p = 0.004; RR = 1.46; CI: 1.15 -1.86); hospitalization and close living quarters (p = 0.03; RR = 1.47; CI: 1.15 -1.86). In children below the age of five, there was correlation between maternal smoking and number of attacks in the last year (p = 0.03; RR = 1.79; CI: 1.04 - 3.08). Conclusion: The prevalence of asthma symptoms was high. The community studied has limited socioeconomic resources, and there is therefore a lack of adequate treatment for asthma. Our results demonstrate the need for prioritized, standardized treatment programs that would give healthcare workers access to the appropriate materials and means of evaluation necessary for asthma control.


Keywords: Key words: Asthma. Prevalence. Smoking in the home. Treatment between episodes of asthma.


5 - Prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms in school-age children in the city of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Prevalência e gravidade de sintomas relacionados à asma em escolares e adolescentes no município de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro

José Laerte Boechat, José Luiz Rios, Clemax Couto Sant'Anna, Alfeu Tavares França

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):111-117

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Background: Asthma is considered the most common chronic childhood disease. However, there have been few studies on the prevalence of asthma in Brazil. Objective: To assess the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms in school-age children and adolescents living in the city of Duque de Caxias, located in the greater metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Method: Cross-sectional transversal study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The sample comprised students of 6, 7, 13 and 14 years of age. Results: One group of 2334 students between the ages of 6 and 7 and another composed of 4040 students between the ages of 13 and 14 were evaluated. The prevalence of wheezing within the last 12 months in the younger children was 27.7%, vs. 19% among the adolescents (p < 0.0001). There was a predominance of males in the 6-7 age group (29.9% vs. 25.6%; p = 0.01) and of females in the 13-14 age group (21.9% vs. 15.8%; p < 0.0001). The proportion of previously diagnosed cases of asthma was similar (approximately 10%) for both age brackets. Wheezing upon physical exertion was more prevalent among the adolescents (21.4% vs. 7.8%; p < 0.0001). Symptom severity was higher among female adolescents (severe asthma: 6.6% vs. 4.4%; p = 0.001), although no differences among genders were seen in the 6-7 age group. Conclusion: Asthma prevalence in Duque de Caxias is high, as it is in other Brazilian and Latin American cities. Values are higher in the 6-7 age group, in which symptoms were seen predominantly in males. Among the adolescents, the prevalence and severity of symptoms were higher in females, a recent observation that seems to be a new epidemiological trend of asthma.


Keywords: Key words: Asthma. Epidemiology. Severity of illness index. Cross-sectional studies.


6 - Efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation: exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

A eficácia da reabilitação pulmonar na capacidade de exercício, força da musculatura inspiratória e qualidade de vida de portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Renata Cláudia Zanchet, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Terezinha Lima

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):118 -124

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Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation is widely recommended for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in improving exercise capacity, respiratory muscle strength and quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Method: This was an open, non-randomized clinical trial involving 27 clinically stable ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. All were evaluated before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: Mean age was 65 ± 5 years, mean body mass index was 25 ± 4 kg/m2, mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 55 ± 25% of predicted, mean ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity was 50 ± 12%, and mean arterial oxygen tension was 70 ± 7 mmHg. Comparison of pre- and post-pulmonary rehabilitation values revealed improvement in the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test (513 ± 99 m vs. 570 ± 104 m), maximum upper limb load (2 ± 1 kg vs. 3 ± 1 kg) and maximal inspiratory pressure (-89 ± 23 cmH2O vs. -102 ± 23 cmH2O), as well as in the activity domain, impact domain and total score on the Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation, when performed with care and with a focus on physical training, is efficacious in increasing not only the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test but maximum upper limb load, maximal inspiratory pressure and quality of life as well.


Keywords: Key words: Pulmonary rehabilitation. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Quality of life. Respiratory muscles.


7 - Lung volumes, lung capacities and respiratory muscle strength following gastroplasty

Volumes, capacidades pulmonares e força muscular respiratória no pós-operatório de gastroplastia

Denise de Moraes Paisani, Luciana Dias Chiavegato, Sonia Maria Faresin

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):125-132

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Background: Gastroplasty has been increasingly used in the treatment of morbidly obese patients, who typically present pronounced alterations in lung volume and capacity. Objective: To evaluate post-gastroplasty lung volume, lung capacity, respiratory muscle strength and respiratory pattern, as well as any postoperative pulmonary complications. Method: 21 patients (3 of them men), with an average age of 39 ± 9.7 years and an average body mass index of 50.4 kg/m2, all candidates for gastroplasty, were evaluated during the preoperative period and again on the first, third and fifth postoperative days. Tidal volume, vital capacity, minute volume, maximal expiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory pressure, as well as chest and waist circumferences, were measured. Postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality were assessed. Results: On the first and third postoperative days, respectively, there were drops of 47% and 30.5% in vital capacity, 18% and 12.5% in minute volume, 28% and 21% in tidal volume, 47% and 32% in the diaphragmatic index, 51% and 26% in maximal inspiratory pressure, and 39.5% and 26% in maximal expiratory pressure (p < 0.05). On the fifth postoperative day, all variables analyzed were higher than on the first postoperative day, indicating a linear increase, with only tidal volume, minute volume diaphragmatic index returning to preoperative values. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 4.7%, and there were no deaths. Conclusion: Patients submitted to gastroplasty present reduced pulmonary function, following a pattern quite similar to that previously observed following other types of upper abdominal surgery.


Keywords: Key words: Gastroplasty. Obesity. Respiratory function tests. Postoperative care.


8 - Analysis of treatment outcomes related to the tuberculosis control program in the city of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

Análise do programa de controle da tuberculose em relação ao tratamento, em Campinas - SP

Helenice Bosco de Oliveira, Leticia Marin-León, Jovana Gardinali

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):133-138

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Background: Tuberculosis cure is dependent upon treatment adherence. Objective: To analyze the results of tuberculosis treatment in public health clinics in the city of Campinas, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, during 2002. Method: From a cohort of 484 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis, we evaluated 436. Treatment outcomes were described for all patients, whether new patients or patients in retreatment, including those presenting the pulmonary form, with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) comorbidity. Results: The success rate was 68.6% (72.3% among non-AIDS patients and 57.6% among AIDS patients). Among new cases, the non-AIDS group presented a 2.2-times greater chance of presenting favorable results. In the AIDS group, no differences were observed between new patients and those in retreatment. Among the unfavorable outcomes, only lethality presented a difference (18.9% among AIDS patients and 8.0% among non-AIDS patients). In patients presenting the pulmonary form, the success rate was similar between those who were initially acid-fast bacilli positive and those who were not. Conclusion: The tuberculosis control program in Campinas presented low effectiveness. In comparison to the 2001 national cohort, success rates were higher for non-AIDS patients but lower for AIDS patients. The higher success rate among cases of tuberculosis without AIDS was primarily derived from the treatment of new cases. The unfavorable profile of tuberculosis patients co-infected with AIDS, characterized by the (18.9%) lethality and the (15.3%) noncompliance, were partially responsible for the lower success rate seen among such patients. It is notable that such high proportions of noncompliant patients were seen in a city providing easy access to treatment. In order to improve the program, medical teams should receive further training in supervised treatment, health education and techniques for interacting with patients, all of which will require considerable investment.


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculosis. Treatment Refusal. Retreatment. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Comorbidity


9 - Coexistence of intracavitary fungal colonization (fungus ball) and active tuberculosis

Coexistência de colonização fúngica intracavitária (bola fúngica) e tuberculose ativa

Gisela Unis, Pedro Dornelles Picon, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):139-143

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Background: Although pulmonary tuberculosis is the principal predisposing factor for intracavitary fungal colonization, the coexistence of the two diseases is rare. Simultaneity of fungal colonization and active mycobacteriosis in the same cavity (acid-fast bacilli found among hyphal masses) is highly unusual. Objective: To describe clinical findings, diagnostic procedures, radiographic aspects, accompanying conditions and evolution in patients with tuberculosis and fungus ball. Method: We reviewed, retrospectively, the records of 625 patients diagnosed with fungus ball between 1974 and 2002. All of the patients had been diagnosed through immunodiffusion or mycological study, or both. The inclusion criterion was positivity for acid-fast bacilli in sputum smear microscopy or histopathology. Results: The charts of 14 patients were selected. All had presented hemoptysis, followed by productive cough, dyspnea, weight loss, fever, asthenia and chest pain. In one patient colonized by Aspergillus niger and in another colonized by Scedosporium apiospermum (Teleomorph, Pseudallescheria boydii), active tuberculosis was seen concomitant to the fungus ball. In the remaining cases, the mycobacteria were found in the adjacent parenchyma or in the contralateral lung. Conclusion: This study corrobates the assertion that antagonism exists between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus fumigatus. The potential for fungal colonization and mycobacteriosis to occur concomitantly is demonstrated in other fungal agents, S. apiospermum (P. boydii) and A. niger in particular.


Keywords: Key words: Aspergillosis. Aspergillus fumigatus. Aspergillus niger. Pseudallescheria. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Scedosporium apiospermum.


10 - Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica

Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Afranio Lineu Kritski, Eleny Guimarães Teixeira, Carla Conceição dos Santos Loredo, Danielle Novelo de Souza, Anete Trajman

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):144-148

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Background: Tuberculin purified protein derivative is stored in vials of various sizes. Its adsorption to the vial can influence the results of tuberculin tests. Objective: To evaluate the effect of vial size on the results obtained in tuberculin tests. Methods: Sixty-four inpatients with active tuberculosis were submitted to two simultaneous tuberculin tests using the Mantoux technique. Patients were randomly allocated to receive two 0.1-ml injections, either one in the right forearm from a 1.5-ml vial and one in the left forearm from a 5-ml vial or vice versa. Induration was determined in a blinded fashion by a single, previously trained observer. Right arm-left arm differences of 2 mm or less were considered concordant results. Results: Twenty-one patients presented no induration and were excluded from analysis. Among the 42 remaining patients, mean induration diameters obtained in tuberculin tests using the larger vials were greater than those obtained in tests using the smaller vials. Concordance was achieved in 40.5% (17/42). The difference was negative (large-vial indurations smaller than small-vial indurations) in 16.7% (7/42) and positive in 42.9% (18/42). Conclusions: The size of the vial may influence tuberculin test results. Adsorption to the sides of the vial may explain this phenomenon. The authors caution others to be aware of the impact of these variations in epidemiological and operational studies.


Keywords: Key words: Tuberculin Skin Test. Tuberculin. Adsorption. PPD. Mantoux.


Guidelines SBPT

Review Article

12 - Portopulmonary hypertension

Hipertensão portopulmonar

Eduardo Garcia, José Silva Moreira, Ajácio Bandeira de Melo Brandão, Alessandra Isabel Zille, Juliana Cardozo Fernandes

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):157-161

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Portal hypertension and cirrhosis can result in complex changes in the pulmonary vascular bed, the most important among them being the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. When pulmonary hypertension accompanies cirrhosis and portal hypertension, it is seldom diagnosed. Its prevalence is estimated to range from 1% to 2% in patients with portal hypertension or cirrhosis, regardless of gender, and the condition is predominantly seen in patients in their 40s. Etiologic factors have not been sufficiently well defined to explain the increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Most patients are asymptomatic until developing dyspnea on exertion, which generally occurs when the mean pulmonary artery pressure exceeds 40 mmHg. Concomitant hepatic disease with progressive hypoxemia or right ventricular failure increase mortality rates. Further studies are needed in order to determine the benefits of using oral, inhaled or intravenous vasodilators, as well as to evaluate the outcomes of liver transplant, which may be the sole definitive therapeutic option.


Keywords: Key words: Oxygen free radicals. Antioxidant substances. Oxidative stress. Lung diseases.


13 - Respiratory disturbance during sleep in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Perturbação respiratória durante o sono em doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Ana C. Krieger

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):162-172

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a prevalent condition and is currently the forth leading cause of mortality in the US. The prevalence of respiratory disturbance during sleep, or overlap syndrome as it was commonly known in the past, is still undetermined as conflicting reports have been published. Because of the adverse effects of sleep-related respiratory impairment in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, this condition deserves further investigation. In this report, we will briefly discuss the mechanisms involved in generating respiratory disturbance during sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and will guide the reader into distinguishing those patients who would benefit from a more detailed sleep evaluation, discussing management issues and treatment options.


Keywords: Key words: COPD. Sleep disorder breathing. Sleep apnea. Hypoxemia. Hypoventilation


Case Report

14 - Langerhans-cell histiocytosis: rapid resolution after smoking cessation

Histiocitose de células de Langerhans: rápida resolução após cessação do tabagismo

José Miguel Chatkin, Vinicius D. Silva, Carlos C. Fritscher, Jussara Fiterman, Cláudia Reck

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):173-176

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We describe a case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis with a close temporal relationship between smoking cessation and radiological improvement. High-resolution computed tomography revealed multiple small nodules located in the upper and middle lobes of both lungs. Microscopy of these lesions showed histiocytic infiltration that reacted strongly to staining for S100 protein. The histiocytes resembling Langerhans cells showed strong reactivity for S100 protein. Smoking cessation was recommended and the patient complied. Chest X-ray and computed tomography performed 6 and 24 months later revealed almost complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities. Despite the possibility that this evolution was attributable to spontaneous remission, in this case, the lesions did, in fact, disappear rapidly after smoking cessation.


Keywords: Key words: Histiocytosis. Langerhans-Cell. Tabaco use cessation.


15 - Multiple pulmonary metastases of benign meningioma

Múltiplas metástases pulmonares de meningioma benigno

Adalberto Sperb Rubin, Liliana Gomes Pellegrin, Nelson da Silva Porto, Geraldo Geyer.

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):177-180

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Meningiomas account for approximately one-sixth of all primary neoplasms of the central nervous system and rarely present extracranial metastases. A finding of multiple metastases is rare, as is the presence of respiratory symptoms. Herein, we report the case of a 67-year-old female patient presenting subacute onset of respiratory symptoms. The patient had undergone resection of a benign intracranial meningioma six months prior, but had no history of lung disease. Upon examination, multiple pulmonary metastases, originating from the primary tumor, were observed.


Keywords: Key words: Meningioma. Neoplasm Metastasis. Lung Neoplasms..


16 - Thoracic ectopic kidney

Rim intratorácico ectópico

Claudinei Leôncio Beraldo, Eugênio Fernandes de Magalhães, Demétrius Tierno Martins, Douglas Silva Coutinho, Lívia Silva Tiburzio, Mário Ribeiro Neto.

J Bras Pneumol.2005;31(2):181-183

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Thoracic ectopic kidney is a rare anomaly, the rarest of all renal ectopia types (p = 0.005%). Herein, we describe a case of thoracic ectopic kidney in an 83-year-old black man who, upon seeking medical attention, presented a clinical profile consistent with pulmonary emphysema. A chest X-ray was ordered, and the results showed evidence of a mass, which was then diagnosed (through computed tomography) as renal ectopia. The majority of thoracic ectopic kidney cases present as an intrathoracic tumor seen on chest X-rays ordered for reasons other than suspicion of this anomaly and do not require special treatment.


Keywords: Key words: Ectopic. Renal. Thoracic. Lung.



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