Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2006 - Volume 32  - Number 1  (January/February)


1 - Master Rosemberg

Mestre Rosemberg

Affonso Berardinelli Tarantino

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):1

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Original Article

4 - Early prognosis of acute asthma in the emergency room

Avaliação prognóstica precoce da asma aguda na sala de emergência

Deise Marcela Piovesan, Diego Milan Menegotto, Suzie Kang, Eduardo Franciscatto, Thaís Millan, Cristine Hoffmann, Lílian Rech Pasin, Josiane Fischer, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):1-9

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Objective: To evaluate clinical and pulmonary function measurements taken in the first fifteen minutes of the assessment of acute asthma in the emergency room and used for prognostic purposes. Methods: A prospective cohort study involving consecutive patients with acute asthma. Only patients who were between the ages of 12 and 55 and presented peak expiratory flow rates < or = 50% of predicted were included. Evaluations were performed upon admission, then again at 15 minutes and 4 hours after the initiation of treatment. Treatment included albuterol and ipratropium delivered by metered-dose inhaler with a spacer, together with 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone. Favorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow > or = 50% of predicted after 4 hours of treatment, and unfavorable outcomes were defined as peak expiratory flow < 50% after 4 hours of treatment. Results: Favorable outcomes were seen in 27 patients, and unfavorable outcomes were seen in 24 patients. In the multivariate analysis, peak expiratory flow as percentage of predicted was identified as the variable with the highest predictive value. A peak expiratory flow > or = 40% after 15 minutes of treatment showed significant power in predicting a favorable outcome (sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 1.00, and positive predictive value = 1.00). A peak expiratory flow < 30% after 15 minutes of treatment was predictive of a poor outcome (sensitivity = 0.54, specificity = 0.93, and positive predictive value = 0.87). Conclusion: Our results suggest that measuring peak expiratory flow after 15 minutes of management in the emergency room is a useful tool for predicting outcomes in cases of acute asthma.


Keywords: Asthma; Acute disease; Respiratory mechanics; Prognosis; Emergency Service, Hospital; Cohort studies


5 - Evaluation of quality of life of patients submitted to pulmonary resection due to neoplasia

Avaliação da qualidade de vida em pacientes submetidos a ressecção pulmonar por neoplasia

Ivete Alonso Bredda Saad, Neury José Botega, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):10-15

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Objective: To evaluate the health-related quality of life of patients submitted to resection of the pulmonary parenchyma due to neoplasia. Methods: The Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was used to evaluate patients in the preoperative period and on postoperative days 30, 90 and 180. We used the GEE statistical model, in which the dependent variable (quality of life) changes for each patient over the course of the evaluation. Independent variables were gender, age, educational level, type of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, forced vital capacity and 6-minute walk test. The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results: The final study sample comprised 36 patients, 20 of whom were men. Of those 36 patients, 17 were submitted to lobectomy, 10 to pneumonectomy, 6 to segmentectomy, and 3 to bilobectomy. Chemotherapy was used in 15 patients, radiotherapy in 2, and a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 2. Improved quality of life was seen in the following domains: social (on postoperative day 90); physical/functional (some patients presenting better forced vital capacity and 6-minute walk test performance); and physical (in patients undergoing smaller resections). Lowered quality of life was seen in the following domains: social (for female patients); physical/social (resulting from radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both); and physical/functional (by postoperative day 30). Conclusions: It is important that studies evaluating the various determinants of quality of life, as well as the impact that cancer treatment modalities have on such variables, be conducted. The knowledge provided by such studies can contribute to improving the quality of life of patients undergoing pulmonary resection due to neoplasia.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms/surgery; Pneumonectomy; Quality of life; Questionnaires


6 - Effects of pneumoperitoneum on the amplitude of diaphragmatic excursion in pigs

Repercussões do pneumoperitônio na amplitude da excursão diafragmática em suínos

Valéria Marques Ferreira Normando, Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito, Francisco Alves de Araújo Júnior, Breno Costa Maciel Albuquerque

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):16-22

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Objective: To study the effects that pneumoperitoneum achieved through carbon dioxide insufflation has on diaphragmatic excursion in pigs. Methods: A total of 14 male Landrace pigs, 30 to 45 days of age and weighing five to seven kilograms each, were used. The sample was randomly and equally divided into two groups: one (n = 7) in which pneumoperitoneum was maintained at 10 mmHg for 60 minutes; and another (n = 7) in which pneumoperitoneum was maintained at 15 mmHg (also for 60 minutes). After anesthetic induction, the animals were intubated. Flow volume was monitored, and the amplitude of diaphragmatic excursion was analyzed using noninvasive ultrasound imaging of the right hemidiaphragm. Results: In both groups, restricted diaphragmatic excursion was observed only during the procedure. There was no statistical difference between the two pressure levels studied. Conclusion: The amplitude of diaphragmatic excursion was restricted during abdominal insufflation, independent of the pressure level (within the 10-15 mmHg range), during the study period.


Keywords: Pneumoperitoneum/chemically induced; Carbon dioxide; Diaphragm; Video-assisted surgery; Swine


7 - Prevalence and characteristics of smoking among youth attending the University of Brasília in Brazil

Prevalência e características do tabagismo em jovens da Universidade de Brasília

Ana Paula Alves de Andrade, Ana Cláudia Corsini Bernardo, Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas, Denise Bastos Lage Ferreira, Thais Cabral Gomes, Mariana Ramos Sales

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):23-28

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Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking and to describe the profile and smoking habits of students attending the Universidade de Brasília (University of Brasília) in Brasília, Brazil. Methods: A total of 1341 students responded to a smoking questionnaire, adapted from the World Health Organization questionnaire, including questions directed at smokers, former smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty different courses in the areas of health, exact sciences and human sciences were evaluated. The students included in the study were duly enrolled in day courses and were evaluated during the second semester of 2003. Results: The overall prevalence of smoking was 14.7%. Approximately 80.8% of the students were nonsmokers, and 4.5% were former smokers. In the study sample, 57.3% of the students were male. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in the prevalence of smoking was observed in terms of gender or class year. The mean age of the study population was 21.6 ± 3.6 years, and the mean age at which the smoking habit was acquired was 17 ± 2.8 years. The percentage of smokers was higher in the Geology, Communication, and History courses (32.9, 26.3 and 24.4%, respectively). Mean consumption was 7.5 cigarettes per day. The majority (72.6%) of the students used commercial cigarettes rather than other types of tobacco. Conclusion: The high prevalence of smoking observed in the present study is similar to that reported for other universities and indicates the need for smoking control policies in university environments.


Keywords: Smoking/epidemiology; Students; Questionnaires


8 - Availability and use of noninvasive ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil

Conhecimento da disponibilidade e sobre o uso da ventilação não invasiva em unidades de terapia intensiva de hospitais públicos, privados e de ensino da região metropolitana de São Paulo

Lara Maris Nápolis, Leila Mara Jeronimo, Danila Vieira Baldini, Michelle Pinheiro Machado, Virgínia Aparecida de Souza, Pedro Caruso

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):29-34

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Objective: To determine the availability of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment, as well as the level of expertise and familiarity of physicians, nurses and physiotherapists with noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in the intensive care units of public, private and teaching hospitals in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: On-site administration of questionnaires. Results: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment was widely available and was more commonly found in private hospitals than in teaching hospitals. Such equipment was least available in public hospitals, in which the predominant method was the use of mechanical ventilators designed for invasive ventilation and adapted to noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. In private hospitals, continuous flow ventilators were more common, whereas, in teaching hospitals, ventilators specifically designed for noninvasive ventilation were typically employed. All physiotherapists felt themselves capable of initiating noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, compared with 72.6% of physicians and 33.3% of nurses. Physicians and physiotherapists presented high percentages of correct answers when asked about the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Over a one year period, more physiotherapists read articles about noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and participated in related classes than did physicians, who in turn did so more than did nurses. Conclusion: Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation equipment is widely available in the greater metropolitan area of São Paulo, although differences exist among public, private and teaching hospitals in terms of the type of equipment used. Physicians and physiotherapists exhibited considerable knowledge regarding the indications and contraindications for the use of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. More physiotherapists felt themselves able to initiate noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, and their knowledge of the subject was more current than was that of physicians or nurses.


Keywords: Ventilators, mechanical; Positive-pressure respiration/methods; Respiratory insuficiency; Intensive care units; Hospitals


9 - Incidence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit of a university hospital: a prospective study

Incidência de lesão pulmonar aguda e síndrome da angústia respiratória aguda no centro de tratamento intensivo de um hospital universitário: um estudo prospectivo

Raquel Hermes Rosa Oliveira, Aníbal Basille Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):35-42

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Objective: To establish the incidence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as related risk factors and mortality in an intensive care unit. To compare patients developing lung injury with at-risk patients not presenting acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods: The study was conducted in the intensive care unit of the Ribeirão Preto Hospital das Clínicas Emergency Room. All patients admitted between May 2001 and April 2002 were monitored prospectively. Clinical data, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, complications, length of stay in the intensive care unit and lung injury data were recorded. Results: Of the 524 patients admitted, 175 (33.4%) presented risk factors for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, 33 (6.3%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 12 (2.3%) developed acute lung injury. The main risk factors were pneumonia (37.7%), shock (32.0%), multiple trauma (24.6%) and sepsis (21.1%). Patients developing acute lung injury had higher Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (p < 0.05), more frequently presented sepsis (p = 0.001), developed more complications (p = 0.001) and presented greater mortality (p = 0.001). The main cause of death was multiple organ failure (38.5%). Conclusion: The incidence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome was 2.3% and 6.3%, respectively.


Keywords: Respiratory distress syndrome, adult/epidemiology; Respiratory distress syndrome, adult/mortality;


10 - Functional profile of patients with tuberculosis sequelae in a university hospital

Perfil funcional de pacientes portadores de seqüela de tuberculose de um hospital universitário

Lucia Maria Macedo Ramos, Nara Sulmonett, Cid Sergio Ferreira, Juliana Fulgêncio Henriques, Silvana Spíndola de Miranda

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):43-47

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Objective: To describe data related to the pulmonary function of patients with sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis, pleural tuberculosis or both. Methods: In the outpatient clinic of a university hospital, 218 patients were evaluated. Of those 218, 56 had sequelae of tuberculosis (pulmonary, pleural or both), and 162 had other types of tuberculosis. All patients were evaluated in the pulmonary function laboratory between February 2000 and July 2004, and 43 were found to be eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients with a history of asthma, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, cardiac insufficiency, collagen diseases, silicosis or thoracic surgery, as well as those for whom spirometry yielded unacceptable results or was not performed, were excluded. The lung fields were divided into six zones, and radiographic results were classified by degree: I (involvement of only one zone with no cavitation); II (involvement of two or three zones or of one zone with cavitation); or III (extensive involvement of three or more zones with or without cavitation). Results: The final study sample comprised 50 patients, 44 (88%) of whom had pulmonary tuberculosis. The most prevalent form (17/50; 34%) was mixed ventilatory disturbance. Severe disturbances were more significant in degree III radiographs (p = 0.0002) and normal pulmonary function was predominant among patients presenting degree I and II radiographs (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The early discovery and treatment of tuberculosis contribute to reduce the number of cases, as well as the incidence of tuberculosis sequelae, thereby improving the quality of life of tuberculosis patients. Further studies, involving longitudinal, sequential analysis and larger samples of patients with tuberculosis sequelae, should be conducted in referral centers in Brazil.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, pulmonary/diagnosis; Tuberculosis, pleural/diagnosis; Respiratory function tests; Spirometry;


11 - Prevalence of and factors related to tuberculosis in seropositive human immunodeficiency virus patients at a reference center for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Prevalência e fatores associados à tuberculose em pacientes soropositivos para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana em centro de referência para tratamento da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul

Jussara Maria Silveira, Raúl Andrés Mendoza Sassi, Isabel Cristina de Oliveira Netto, Jorge Lima Hetzel

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):48-55

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Objective: In view of the relevance of co-infection with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus, this study was designed to determine tuberculosis prevalence and identify factors related to tuberculosis in patients residing in a region in which both infections are highly prevalent. Methods: All patients treated during 1999 at the HIV/AIDS Clinic of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Rio Grande Federal University) University Hospital were evaluated retrospectively, from the time of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis, in terms of the incidence of tuberculosis and its relationship to sociodemographic, behavioral and immunological factors. Results: The sample included 204 patients, and tuberculosis prevalence was found to be 27%. The multivariate analysis showed a significant correlation between the development of tuberculosis and being of African descent (odds ratio: 4.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.93-11.72) and an inverse correlation between the development of tuberculosis and the TCD4+ lymphocyte count at the time of human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis (odds ratio: 0.995; 95% confidence interval: 0.993-0.997). When analyzed separately, other variables were found to be potential risk factors: being of the male gender (odds ratio: 2.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-5.39); and using illicit drugs (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-4.31). Conclusion: The factors responsible for the development of tuberculosis among patients who are human immunodeficiency virus seropositive include immunological, socioeconomic and demographic factors. The high rate of tuberculosis prevalence among the seropositive patients underscores the urgent need to implement strategies that combine rapid identification and prompt treatment of individuals with active or latent infection, as well as of those with whom they have been in contact.


Keywords: HIV Infections/complications; AIDS-related opportunistic infections/complications; Tuberculosis/etiology; Tuberculosis/epidemiology


Review Article

12 - Molecular markers in lung cancer: prognostic role and relationship to smoking

Marcadores moleculares no câncer de pulmão: papel prognóstico e sua relação com o tabagismo

Ricardo Luiz de Menezes Duarte, Marcos Eduardo Machado Paschoal

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):56-65

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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Although most lung cancer cases are linked to smoking, only a minority of heavy smokers develop lung cancer, leading to the notion that genetic factors affect individual susceptibility. The principal molecular changes in lung cancer are seen in tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, growth factors, telomerase activity, and methylation status of promoters. Well-known agents include angiogenesis-stimulating factors (such as vascular endothelial growth factor), as well as factors related to tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis (epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, K-ras, retinoblastoma and BCL-2). Several of these genetic factors have already been investigated, but no single parameter has yet presented sufficient selectivity regarding prognostic value or therapeutic efficacy. Treatment strategies to cure lung cancer should focus on these early genetic lesions in order to promote their repair or to eliminate these lung cancer cells.


Keywords: Smoking; Lung neoplasms; Genetic markers; Prognosis


13 - New treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using ergogenic aids

Novas terapias ergogênicas no tratamento da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Débora Strose Villaça, Maria Cristina Lerario, Simone Dal Corso, José Alberto Neder

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):66-77

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently considered a systemic disease, presenting structural and metabolic alterations that can lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. This negatively affects the performance of respiratory and peripheral muscles, functional capacity, health-related quality of life and even survival. The decision to prescribe ergogenic aids for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is based on the fact that these drugs can avert or minimize catabolism and stimulate protein synthesis, thereby reducing the loss of muscle mass and increasing exercise tolerance. This review summarizes the available data regarding the use of anabolic steroids, creatine, L-carnitine, branched-chain amino acids and growth hormones in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The advantage of using these ergogenic aids appears to lie in increasing lean muscle mass and inducing bioenergetic modifications. Within this context, most of the data collected deals with anabolic steroids. However, to date, the clinical benefits in terms of increased exercise tolerance and muscle strength, as well as in terms of the effect on morbidity and mortality, have not been consistently demonstrated. Dietary supplementation with substances of ergogenic potential might prove to be a valid adjuvant therapy for treating patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, especially those presenting loss of muscle mass or peripheral muscle weakness.


Keywords: Lung diseases, obstructive; Respiratory muscle; Dietary supplements; Anabolic agents/therapeutic use; Exercício; Energy metabolism


Case Report

14 - Pulmonary blastoma: treatment through sleeve resection of the right upper lobe

Blastoma pulmonar: tratamento cirúrgico por lobectomia superior direita e broncoplastia

Eduardo Sperb Pilla, Pablo G. Sánchez, Gabriel Ribeiro Madke, Spencer Camargo, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):75-77

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Pulmonary blastoma is a rare lung tumor that is composed of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells. It presents a pattern of rapid growth. Herein, we report the case of a patient with hemoptysis and a mass in the right upper lobe. The patient presented limited pulmonary function, and fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed invasion of the intermediate bronchus. The patient underwent sleeve resection of right upper lobe, a technique never before described. After 36 months of follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic. We also review the literature regarding treatment, clinical aspects and pathology.


Keywords: Pulmonary blastoma/surgery; Pneumonectomy; Case reports [Publication type]


15 - Sclerosing mediastinitis in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal tumors

Mediastinite esclerosante no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores mediastinais

Davi Wen Wei Kang, Mauro Canzian, Ricardo Beyruti, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):78-83

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Sclerosing mediastinitis is a rare disorder characterized by an extensive fibrotic reaction involving the mediastinum. Due to the compression or invasion of mediastinal structures, the disorder mimics neoplasia. We present three cases of superior vena cava syndrome in which sclerosing mediastinitis was confirmed. The pathophysiological process is related to enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. The main causes of sclerosing mediastinitis are histoplasmosis and tuberculosis, both of which are prevalent in Brazil. It is difficult to make an accurate histopathological diagnosis using minimally invasive methods, and there is no effective treatment for this condition. In order to make a definitive diagnosis and resolve the aerodigestive tract obstruction, exploratory surgery is indicated.


Keywords: Mediastinitis/physiopathology; Mediastinum; Pulmonary fibrosis; Mediastinal neoplasms; Diagnosis, differential; Case reports [Publication type].


16 - Pneumothorax and tension pneumopericardium following cardiothoracic surgery

Pneumotorax e pneumopericárdio hipertensivo em cirurgia cardiotorácica

Rui Haddad, Carlos Eduardo Teixeira Lima, Carlos Henrique Boasquevisque, Guilherme Saraiva Haddad, Tadeu Diniz Ferreira

J Bras Pneumol.2006;32(1):84-87

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Herein, we report two cases of pneumothorax and tension pneumopericardium after cardiothoracic surgery. Both patients underwent pericardiotomy during the primary operation and developed pericardial tamponade as a complication. The treatment was tube thoracostomy, and both patients recovered completely.


Keywords: Pneumopericardium/etiology; Pneumothorax/etiology; Thoracic surgical procedures/adverse effects; Postoperative complications



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