Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2008 - Volume 34  - Number 3  (/March)

Original Article

2 - Detection of micrometastases in pN0 non-small cell lung cancer: an alternative method combining tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry

Detecção de micrometástases em câncer de pulmão não-pequenas células estádio pN0: um método alternativo combinando imunohistoquímica e análise em microsséries

Maíra Rovigatti Franco, Edwin Roger Parra, Teresa Yae Takagaki, Fernando Augusto Soares, Vera Luiza Capelozzi

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):129-135

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present an alternative method of detecting micrometastases in lymph nodes previously testing negative for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by routine hematoxylin-eosin staining. Methods: A total of 77 hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes resected from 18 patients with NSCLC were investigated for the presence of micrometastases using a combination of microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. Results: Micrometastases were detected by identifying cytokeratin- and chromogranin-positive cells in lymph node microarrays. Of the 18 patients initially staged as pN0 through routine hematoxylin-eosin staining, 9 (50%) were restaged as N1, and the prognoses were re-evaluated in terms of histological and clinical parameters. The comparison of the survival curves revealed that survival was higher in the patients without micrometastases than in those with micrometastases. In addition, in the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, histological type, and restaging, the presence of micrometastases proved to be an independent predictor of survival. Among patients who had been previously staged as pN0, the risk of death was found to be 7-times greater for those later diagnosed with micrometastases than for those in whom no micrometastases were identified. Conclusion: The combination of microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry might represent a low-cost and less time-consuming alternative for identifying occult micrometastases and predicting prognoses in surgically resected patients with pN0 NSCLC. Larger randomized, prospective studies are needed in order to determine the accuracy of this method.


Keywords: Lung neoplasms; Microarray analysis; Chromogranin A; Survival analysis.


3 - The incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted sympathectomy with and without pleural drainage and its effect on postoperative pain

Incidência de pneumotórax residual após simpatectomia torácica videotoracoscópica com e sem drenagem pleural e sua possível influência na dor pós-operatória

Alexandre Garcia de Lima, Giancarlo Antonio Marcondes, Ayrton Bentes Teixeira, Ivan Felizardo Contrera Toro, Jose Ribas Milanez de Campos, Fábio Biscegli Jatene

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):136-142

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the incidence of residual pneumothorax after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy, with and without postoperative pleural drainage, and to evaluate the possible influence of this type of pneumothorax on postoperative pain within the first 28 postoperative days. Methods: All patients presenting symptoms consistent with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and treated at the Thoracic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the State Hospital of Sumaré between July and December of 2006 were included. All were submitted to sympathectomy up to the third ganglion using video-assisted thoracoscopy and were randomized to receive or not receive postoperative pleural drainage for 3 h. Chest X-rays and low-dose computed tomography scans of the chest were performed on the first postoperative day in order to determine the incidence of residual pneumothorax. At different time points up to postoperative day 28, patient pain was assessed using a visual numeric scale and by measuring the quantity of opioid analgesics required. Results: This study comprised 56 patients, 27 submitted to bilateral pleural drainage and 29 not submitted to drainage. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of the incidence of post-sympathectomy residual pneumothorax. Residual pneumothorax diagnosed through any of the methods did not influence pain within the first 28 postoperative days. Conclusion: Performing closed pleural drainage for 3 h immediately after video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy did not affect lung re-expansion or the incidence of residual pneumothorax. When residual pneumothorax was present, it did not affect pain within the first 28 postoperative days.


Keywords: Hyperhidrosis; Sympathectomy; Pain, postoperative; Pneumothorax; Drainage; Pleura.


4 - The Brazilian Portuguese version of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale for use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Versão brasileira da escala London Chest Activity of Daily Living para uso em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica

Marta Fioravante Carpes, Anamaria Fleig Mayer, Karen Muriel Simon, José Roberto Jardim, Rachel Garrod

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):143 -151

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To translate the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale into Portuguese and to determine whether this version is reproducible in Brazilian patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: The LCADL scale was translated into Portuguese and then back-translated into English. This pilot Brazilian Portuguese version was administered to 8 patients with COPD, and possible text-related problems were investigated. The principal problems were discussed with the authors of the original scale, and a final translated version was arrived at. At the study outset, two observers administered this final version (twice in one day) to 31 patients with COPD. One of those observers again administered the scale to the same patients 15-20 days later. At baseline, the patients were submitted to pulmonary function testing and to the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the LCADL scale demonstrated excellent reproducibility in the total score and in most of the questions, with an inter-rater Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89-0.97; p < 0.01) and an intra-rater Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.83-0.96; p < 0.01). The total score presented a negative correlation with forced expiratory volume in one second in liters (r = −0.49; p < 0.05) and with distance covered on the 6MWT (r = −0.56; p < 0.05). Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the LCADL scale is a reliable, reproducible, and valid instrument for evaluating dyspnea during activities of daily living in patients with severe COPD.


Keywords: Activities of daily living; Dyspnea; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Reproducibility of results.


5 - Sputum examination in the clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia

Exame do escarro no manejo clínico dos pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade

Leonardo Gilberto Haas Signori, Maurício Weyh Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Hack Radünz Vieira, Karen Reetz Müller, Waldo Luís Leite Dias de Mattos

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):152-158

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of the use of sputum examination in the clinical management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a general hospital and to determine whether its use has an impact on mortality. Methods: The medical records of CAP patients treated as inpatients between May and November of 2004 at the Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, located in Porto Alegre, Brazil, were reviewed regarding the following aspects: age; gender; severity of pneumonia (Fine score); presence of sputum; sputum bacteriology; treatment history; change in treatment; and mortality. Results: A total of 274 CAP patients (134 males and 140 females) were evaluated. Using the Fine score to quantify severity, we classified 79 (28.8%) of those 274 patients as class II, 45 (16.4%) as class III, 97 (35.4%) as class IV, and 53 (19.3%) as class V. Sputum examination was carried out in 92 patients (33.6%). A valid sample was obtained in 37 cases (13.5%), and an etiological diagnosis was obtained in 26 (9.5%), resulting in a change of treatment in only 9 cases (3.3%). Overall mortality was 18.6%. Advanced age (above 65), CAP severity, and dry cough were associated with an increase in the mortality rate. Sputum examination did not alter any clinical outcome or have any influence on mortality. Conclusion: Sputum examination was used in a minority of patients and was not associated with any noticeable benefit in the clinical management of patients with CAP treated in a hospital setting.


Keywords: Pneumonia/etiology; Sputum; Diagnosis.


6 - Noncompliance with tuberculosis treatment involving self administration of treatment or the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy in a tuberculosis control program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil

Abandono do tratamento de tuberculose utilizando-se as estratégias tratamento auto-administrado ou tratamento supervisionado no Programa Municipal de Carapicuíba, São Paulo, Brasil

Amadeu Antonio Vieira, Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):159-166

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine treatment noncompliance rates among patients participating in a municipal tuberculosis control program and to identify the variables related to noncompliance depending on the type of treatment strategy used. Methods: A longitudinal non-concurrent cohort study was carried out involving two cohorts of patients participating in the Tuberculosis Control Program of the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil. The first cohort comprised 173 patients with tuberculosis treated from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003 using self administration of treatment, and the second comprised 187 patients with tuberculosis treated from July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005 using the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy. Results: Noncompliance rates decreased from 13.3% (self administration of treatment) to 5.9% (directly observed therapy, short-course), a significant difference (p < 0.05). For the self administration of treatment strategy, the variables significantly associated with treatment noncompliance were as follows: being an unregistered worker (relative risk [RR] = 3.06); retreatment (RR = 2.73); alcoholism (RR = 3.10); and no investigation of contacts (RR = 8.94). For the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy, no variables were significantly associated with noncompliance. Conclusion: The directly observed therapy, short-course strategy decreased noncompliance rates and produced better treatment outcomes, even when the risk factors for noncompliance were the same.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Self administration; Directly observed therapy; Treatment refusal.


7 - Adapting the Bird Mark 7 to deliver noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure: a bench study

Adaptação do Bird Mark 7 para oferta de pressão positiva contínua nas vias aéreas em ventilação não-invasiva: estudo em modelo mecânico

Beatriz Mayumi Kikuti, Karen Utsunomia, Renata Potonyacz Colaneri, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro de Carvalho, Pedro Caruso

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):167-172

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To test the efficiency of the Bird Mark 7 ventilator adapted to deliver continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Methods: This was an experimental study using a mechanical model of the respiratory system. A Bird Mark 7 ventilator was supplied with 400 and 500 kPa and tested at CPAP of 5, 10 and 15 cmH2O. The following variables were analyzed: difference between the preset CPAP and the CPAP actually attained CPAP (trueCPAP); area of airway pressure at the CPAP level employed (AREACPAP); and tidal volume generated. Results: Adapting the Bird Mark 7 to offer CPAP achieved the expected tidal volume in all situations of inspiratory effort (normal or high), ventilator pressure supply (400 or 500 kPa) and CPAP value (5, 10 or 15 cmH2O). At a CPAP of 5 or 10 cmH2O, the trueCPAP was near the preset level, and the AREACPAP was near zero. However, at a CPAP of 15 cmH2O, the value remained below the preset, and the AREACPAP was high. Conclusion: The efficiency of Bird Mark 7 adaptation in offering CPAP was satisfactory at 5 and 10 cmH2O but insufficient at 15 cmH2O. If adapted as described in our study, the Bird Mark 7 might be an option for offering CPAP up to 10 cmH2O in areas where little or no equipment is available.


Keywords: Ventilators, mechanical; Positive-pressure respiration; Continuous positive airway pressure.


Review Article

8 - Diagnosis of circadian rhythm sleep disorders

Diagnóstico dos transtornos do sono relacionados ao ritmo circadiano

Denis Martinez, Maria do Carmo Sfreddo Lenz, Luiz Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):173-180

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Insomnia and excessive sleepiness are common in the investigation of sleep-disordered breathing. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are perhaps the most often overlooked conditions in the differential diagnosis of these symptoms. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders manifest as misalignment between the sleep period and the physical/social 24-h environmental cycle. The two most prevalent circadian rhythm sleep disorders are delayed sleep phase (common in adolescents) and advanced sleep phase (common in the elderly), situations in which the sleep period is displaced to a later or earlier time, respectively. It is important to keep these two disorders in mind, since they can be confused with insomnia and excessive sleepiness. However, there are nine possible diagnoses, and all nine are of clinical interest. Since light is the principal cue used in synchronizing the biological clock, blind individuals and night-shift/swing-shift workers are more prone to develop circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In this article, the new international classification of circadian rhythm sleep disorders is reviewed.


Keywords: Circadian rhythm; Sleep disorders; Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders; Sleep stages; Sleep apnea syndromes.


Case Report

9 - Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to long-term use of nitrofurantoin: high-resolution computed tomography findings

Pneumonia eosinofílica crônica secundária ao uso prolongado de nitrofurantoína: achados da tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução do tórax

Rosane Rodrigues Martins, Edson Marchiori, Sérgio Lopes Viana, Luiz Sérgio Pereira Grillo Júnior, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Laércio Moreira Valença

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):181-184

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The authors report the case of a female patient who developed chronic eosinophilic pneumonia secondary to long-term use of nitrofurantoin for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections due to urethral stenosis. On high-resolution computed tomography scans, the pulmonary reaction to nitrofurantoin most commonly manifests as an interstitial-alveolar pattern in both lung bases. However, in this case, the alterations were most pronounced in the periphery of the upper lobes. In itself, this tomographic profile is strongly indicative of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The patient had previously been submitted to an open lung biopsy. The diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was confirmed through a review of the biopsy.


Keywords: Pneumonia; Pulmonary eosinophilia; Nitrofurantoin/adverse effects; Tomography, X-ray computed.


10 - Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax

Tumor de células gigantes costal ocupando todo o hemitórax

Samuel Zuínglio de Biasi Cordeiro, Paulo de Biasi Cordeiro, Aureliano Mota Cavalcanti Sousa, Deborah Cordeiro Lannes, Gustavo Soares de Moura Pierro

J Bras Pneumol.2008;34(3):185-188

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The authors report the case of a 28-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating from the rib. The tumor, measuring 25 × 17 cm, occupied the entire hemithorax and caused atelectasis of the left lung. This tumor was a benign mesenchymal neoplasm, which rarely affects the ribs. A thoracotomy involving en bloc resection of the chest wall and tumor was performed. Despite the large dimensions of the tumor, complete resection was possible, and lung function was restored.


Keywords: Neoplasms; Giant cells; Mesoderm; Thoracotomy; Medical records.



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