Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 1  (/January)


Original Article

2 - Prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents in a city in the Brazilian Amazon region

Prevalência de asma em escolares e adolescentes em um município na região da Amazônia brasileira

Antonia Maria Rosa, Eliane Ignotti, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Hermano Albuquerque de Castro

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):7-13

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in students of two distinct age brackets residing in the city of Tangará da Serra, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study of the prevalence of asthma in children from 6 to 7 years of age and adolescents from 13 to 14, using the standardized International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, phase 1 questionnaire, validated for use in Brazil. Students who responded affirmatively to question 2 (presence of wheezing in the preceding 12 months) were classified as suffering from asthma. Results: The study comprised 3,362 students, of whom 1,634 (48.6%) were children and 1,728 (51.4%) were adolescents. Of the 1,634 children, 816 (49.9%) were male and 818 (50.1%) were female. Of the 1,728 adolescents, 773 (45.0%) were male and 955 (55.0%) were female. The prevalence of asthma among the children was 25.2%, whereas that among the adolescents was 15.9% (χ2 = 8.34; p = 0.00). The children presented higher prevalences of the following symptoms of asthma than did the adolescents: wheezing ever (54.3%), nocturnal dry cough (43.9%), wheezing in the preceding 12 months (25.2%), and from 1 to 3 attacks of wheezing in the preceding 12 months (19.1%). There were no differences between the two groups regarding physician-diagnosed asthma (approximately 4.5%). There were no statistical differences regarding the prevalence of asthma by gender in the two groups. Conclusions: Tangará da Serra has a high prevalence of asthma in children and adolescents, and this result is compatible with other studies carried out in Brazil and Latin America using the same methodology.


Keywords: Asthma/epidemiology; Child; Adolescent.


3 - Therapeutic application of collateral ventilation with pulmonary drainage in the treatment of diffuse emphysema: report of the first three cases

Aplicação terapêutica da ventilação colateral com drenagem pulmonar no tratamento do enfisema pulmonar difuso: relato dos três primeiros casos

Roberto Saad Junior, Vicente Dorgan Neto, Marcio Botter, Roberto Stirbulov, Jorge Henrique Rivaben, Roberto Gonçalves

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):14-19

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To report the results obtained in three patients with diffuse pulmonary emphysema during the pre- and post-operative periods following a new surgical technique: collateral ventilation with lung parenchyma drainage. Methods: Patients suffering from pulmonary failure and disabling dyspnea, despite having received the gold standard treatment, including pulmonary rehabilitation, were selected for the evaluation of pulmonary drainage. During the pre- and post-operative periods, patients were submitted to plethysmography and six-minute walk tests, as well as completing the following quality of life questionnaires: Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status and Medical Research Council Scale. In all three cases, the post-operative follow-up period was at least 300 days. The tests were performed at the following time points: during the pre-operative period; between post-operative days 30 and 40; and on post-operative day 300. Data were analyzed using profile plots of the means. Results: When the results obtained in the pre-operative period were compared to those obtained at the two post-operative time points evaluated, improvements were observed in all parameters studied. Conclusions: The results suggest that the surgical technique proposed for the treatment of patients suffering from severe diffuse emphysema successfully reduces the debilitating symptoms of these patients, improving their quality of life considerably.


Keywords: Pulmonary emphysema; Lung diseases, obstructive; Lung, hyperlucent.


4 - Influence of lean body mass on cardiopulmonary repercussions during the six-minute walk test in patients with COPD

Influência da massa magra corporal nas repercussões cardiopulmonares durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC

Nilva Regina Gelamo Pelegrino, Paulo Adolfo Lucheta, Fernanda Figueirôa Sanchez, Márcia Maria Faganello, Renata Ferrari, Irma de Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):20-26

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Although lean body mass (LBM) has been associated with mortality in patients with COPD, its influence on functional limitation is not clear. The objective of this study was to analyze the cardiopulmonary variables in COPD patients with or without LBM depletion, prior to and after the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: We evaluated COPD patients, 32 with LBM depletion and 36 without. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, evaluation of body mass composition and 6MWT, as well as completing questionnaires related to quality of life and perception of dyspnea. Results: No significant differences in the severity of airway obstruction, perception of dyspnea and quality of life scores were found between the groups. The distance covered on the 6MWT was similar in COPD patients with and without LBM depletion (470.3 ± 68.5 m vs. 448.2 ± 89.2 m). However, patients with LBM depletion presented significantly greater differences between baseline and final values in terms of heart rate and Borg scale index for lower limb fatigue. There was a significant positive correlation between distance covered on the 6MWT and FEV1 (r = 0.381, p = 0.01).Conclusions: In the patients studied, functional exercise tolerance and quality of life were unaffected by LBM depletion. However, the patients with LBM depletion presented more pronounced lower limb fatigue during the 6MWT, which underscores the importance of the evaluation and treatment of systemic manifestations in COPD patients.


Keywords: Body mass index; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Exercise tolerance.


5 - Perception of disease severity in adult patients with cystic fibrosis

Percepção da gravidade da doença em pacientes adultos com fibrose cística

Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Greice Rampon, Lílian Rech Pasin, Sinara Corrêa Becker, Gretchem Mesquita Ramon, Viviane Ziebell de Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):27-34

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the perception of disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), investigating its relationship with clinical score, radiographic score, respiratory function tests, adherence to treatment and perception of self-care practices. Methods: Prospective, cross-sectional study involving CF patients treated in a program for adults with CF. The perception of disease severity, adherence to treatment and reported self-care practices were evaluated by means of questionnaires. Clinical data, Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical score, Brasfield radiographic score and spirometry were obtained for all of the patients. Results: Of the 38 patients studied, 3 (7.9%) patients rated their perception of health status as well below average; 5 (13.2%), as below average; 15 (39.5%), as average; 10 (26.3%), as above average; and 5 (13.2%), as well above average. The perception of disease severity correlated significantly with clinical score (r = 0.43, p = 0.007), FVC (r = 0.34, p = 0.034), FEV1 (r = 0.38, p = 0.019) and self-care practices (r = 0.33, p = 0.044), but not with degree of adherence (r = -0.03, p = 0.842) and radiographic score (r = 0.33, p = 0.51). Conclusions: The perception of disease severity correlated with objective measurements of disease severity (clinical score and respiratory function tests) and with reported self-care practices, but not with adherence to treatment.


Keywords: Severity of illness index; Cystic fibrosis; Patient compliance; Respiratory function tests.


6 - Pulmonary deposition of inhaled tobramycin prior to and after respiratory therapy and use of inhaled albuterol in cystic fibrosis patients colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Deposição pulmonar de tobramicina inalatória antes e após fisioterapia respiratória e uso de salbutamol inalatório em pacientes com fibrose cística colonizados por Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Milena Baptistella Grotta, Elba Cristina de Sá Camargo Etchebere, Antonio Fernando Ribeiro, Juliana Romanato, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira Ribeiro, José Dirceu Ribeiro

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):35-43

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate whether respiratory therapy followed by the use of inhaled albuterol modifies the pulmonary deposition of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and whether pulmonary deposition correlates with disease severity or genotype. Methods: A prospective study was carried out including patients with CF older than 6 years of age and colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exclusion criteria were pulmonary exacerbation, changes in therapy between the study phases and FEV1 < 25%. All patients were submitted to pulmonary scintigraphy by means of a scintillation camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose collimator in order to evaluate drug penetration following the administration of inhaled 99mTc-tobramycin, as well as to pulmonary perfusion with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (phase 1). One month later, the same procedure was performed following respiratory therapy and administration of inhaled albuterol (phase 2). Results: We included 24 patients (12 males) aged 5-27 years (mean ± SD: 12.85 ± 6.64 years). The Shwachman score (SS) was excellent/good in 8 patients, moderate/fair in 16 and poor in 0. Genotyping revealed that 7 patients were ΔF508 homozygotes, 13 were ΔF508 heterozygotes; and 4 presented other mutations. In all patients, lung deposition of tobramycin decreased in phase 2, especially in those with moderate/fair SS (p = 0.017) and in heterozygotes (p = 0.043). Conclusions: The use of a respiratory therapy technique and the administration of inhaled albuterol immediately prior to the use of inhaled tobramycin decreased the pulmonary deposition of the latter in CF patients, and this reduction correlates with disease severity and genotype.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Tobramycin; Respiratory therapy; Albuterol; Radionuclide imaging.


7 - Prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease in Brazil

Prevalência de benefícios de seguridade social temporários devido a doença respiratória no Brasil

Simone de Andrade Goulart Ildefonso, Anadergh Barbosa-Branco, Paulo Rogério Albuquerque-Oliveira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):44-53

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of temporary social security benefits due to respiratory disease granted to employees, as well as the number of lost workdays and costs resulting from those in Brazil between 2003 and 2004. Methods: Cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Unified System of Benefits of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security (INSS, Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social) and the Brazilian Social Registry Database. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis and type of economic activity, as well as type, duration and cost of benefits, were compiled. Results: Respiratory diseases accounted for 1.3% of the total number of temporary social security benefits granted by INSS, with a prevalence rate of 9.92 (per 10,000 employment contracts). Females and individuals older than 50 years of age were the most affected. Non-work-related benefits were more common than were work-related benefits. The most prevalent diseases were pneumonia, asthma and COPD, followed by laryngeal and vocal cord diseases. The most prevalent types of economic activity were auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities. The mean duration of benefits was 209.68 days, with a mean cost of R$ 4,495.30 per occurrence. Respiratory diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leave (mean, 296.72 days) and greater cost (mean, R$ 7,105.74). Conclusions: The most prevalent diseases were airway diseases and pneumonia. Workers from auxiliary transportation equipment manufacturing, tobacco product manufacturing and computer-related activities were the most affected. Diseases caused by exogenous agents demanded longer sick leaves and resulted in greater costs.


Keywords: Respiratory tract diseases; Sick leave; Work; Workers' compensation; Social security.


8 - Clinical evolution of a group of patients with multidrug-resistant TB treated at a referral center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Evolução clínica de um grupo de pacientes com TB multirresistente atendidos em um centro de referência na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

Helio Ribeiro de Siqueira, Flávia Alvim Dutra de Freitas, Denise Neves de Oliveira, Angela Maria Werneck Barreto, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Rodolpho Mattos Albano

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):54-62

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and evolution of a group of patients with positive sputum cultures for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated at a referral center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Based on the positive results in sputum cultures for MDR M. tuberculosis, 50 patients were selected, and their clinical data were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health MDR-TB Database. The frequencies of noncompliance, relapses, failures and previous treatments for TB up to diagnosis of MDR-TB were compiled. The radiological patterns were classified as unilateral or bilateral, and with or without cavitation. Two years after the end of the standard treatment for MDR-TB, the outcome (cure, failure, noncompliance or death) for each patient was evaluated and reassessed every two years. The post-treatment follow-up period was eight years. Results: The mean number of previous treatments was 2.3 ± 0.9. The mean interval between the initial diagnosis and the development of MDR-TB was 2.0 ± 1.7 years. Two years after the initial treatment for MDR-TB, 2 patients had abandoned treatment, 8 had died, 18 had been cured, and 22 had presented treatment failure. The bivariate analysis showed that bilateral pulmonary involvement and cavitary pattern markedly reduced the chances for cure, with a relative risk of 1-0.6 (40%) and 1-0.7 (30%), respectively. At the end of the follow-up period, 2 patients had abandoned treatment, 9 had presented treatment failure, 17 had been cured, and 22 had died. Conclusions: Bilateral pulmonary involvement and cavity pattern greatly reduced the chances for cure of the patients with MDR-TB. Most patients who presented treatment failure died within the 8-year follow-up period.


Keywords: Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant; Treatment outcome; Disease-free survival; Treatment refusal; Treatment failure.


9 - Prevalence of active and latent TB among inmates in a prison hospital in Bahia, Brazil

Prevalência de TB ativa e TB latente em internos de um hospital penal na Bahia

Antônio Carlos Moreira Lemos, Eliana Dias Matos, Carolina Nunes Bittencourt

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):63-68

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of latent and active TB among detainees in a prison hospital in Bahia, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study with prospective data collection was carried out comprising 237 inmates in the Bahia State Prison Hospital between July 2003 and April 2004. A standardized questionnaire was applied and completed by medical students. The detainees were systematically submitted to the following tests: tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray (anteroposterior), sputum smear microscopy and culture for mycobacteria. The events of interest were active TB and latent TB. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.6 years, and 89.9% were male. Smoking and alcohol consumption were reported by 70.0% and 43.9% of the inmates, respectively. A history of treatment for TB was reported by 11.3% of the inmates. Of the inmates evaluated, 36.3% reported cough and 31.4% reported expectoration. Other less common symptoms were asthenia (in 26.2%), weight loss (in 23.1%), loss of appetite (in 17.7%), fever (in 11.3%) and hemoptysis (in 6.7%). Of the 86 inmates tested, none presented positive HIV serology. The prevalence of latent TB was 61.5% (96 of the 156 inmates submitted to tuberculin skin tests), whereas that of active TB was 2.5% (6 of the 237 inmates evaluated). The presence of cough was a determinant of active TB (prevalence ratio = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.04-73.9; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Active and latent TB are highly prevalent among inmates hospitalized in the Bahia State Prison Hospital. Our findings justify the need to implement public policies specifically directed towards the control of TB in this population.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Prisons; Hospitals; Prevalence.


Brief Communication

10 - Design and evaluation of a device for collecting exhaled breath condensate

Diseño y evaluación de un equipo para obtener aire espirado condensado

Oscar Florencio Araneda Valenzuela, Maria Paulina Salazar Encina

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):69-72

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In recent years, the analysis of exhaled breath condensate samples has been given great weight as a noninvasive methodology of studying physiology and lung diseases. The present study describes a device for measuring exhaled breath condensate that is affordable, easily constructed, portable and suitable for use in the field, as well as allowing the collection of simultaneous samples. The results obtained with this device in terms of the concentrations of pH, hydrogen peroxide and nitrite, metabolites related to inflammatory and oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate samples are comparable to those obtained with other devices previously described.


Keywords: Exhalation; Lung diseases; Equipment design.



11 - Psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence

As propriedades psicométricas do Teste de Fagerström para Dependência de Nicotina

Izilda Carolina de Meneses-Gaya, Antonio Waldo Zuardi, Sonia Regina Loureiro, José Alexandre de Souza Crippa

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):73-82

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) is a screening instrument for physical nicotine dependence and is extensively used in various countries. The objective of the present report was to review articles related to the psychometric properties of the FTND. Methods: A systematic search for articles published up through December of 2007 was carried out in various electronic databases. The following search terms were used: "Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence"; "FTND"; "psychometric"; "validity"; "reliability"; "feasibility"; and "factors". We included articles published in English, Spanish or Portuguese and in which the psychometric properties of the FTND were evaluated. Results: Twenty-six studies related to the psychometric properties of the FTND were identified in the indexed literature. Analysis of the studies confirmed the reliability of the FTND for the assessment of nicotine dependence in different settings and populations. Conclusions: Further validation studies using previously validated instruments as a comparative measure are needed before the extensive use of the FTND can be justified on the basis of its psychometric qualities.


Keywords: Tobacco use disorder; Psychometrics; Tobacco; Reproducibility of results.


Review Article

12 - Tuberculosis in health professionals: a new perspective on an old problem

Tuberculose em profissionais de saúde: um novo olhar sobre um antigo problema

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Juliana Lopes Fávero, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):83-90

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

The objective of this review was to contribute to the debate on the nosocomial transmission of TB among health professionals in a country where TB is endemic. Prior to 1900, there was no reason to believe that health professionals interacting with TB patients were more susceptible to becoming infected with the bacillus than was the general population. Between 1920 and 1930, various studies showed significant findings regarding the rates of positive tuberculin skin tests among students in the area of health care. However, most clinicians remained skeptical about the susceptibility of health professionals to becoming infected with TB. In the various locales where the treatment of patients with TB has been implemented, health professionals have been described as an especially predisposed population to becoming infected with and developing active TB. It is urgent that the scientific community and health professionals become mobilized, recognizing themselves as a population at risk of developing TB, and that actions be taken in order to minimize the potential risks of acquiring the disease at locales where patients with TB are treated.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Cross infection; Health personnel.


Case Report

13 - Repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy after recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

Reoperação de tromboendarterectomia pulmonar em recidiva de tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico hipertensivo

Walter José Gomes, Carlos Jogi Imaeda, João Alessio Perfeito, Petrúcio Abrantes Sarmento, Rodrigo Caetano Souza, Vicente Forte

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):91-94

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy has been established as the standard method for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, with excellent results. However, repeat pulmonary thromboendarterectomy due to recurrence of pulmonary embolism has never been reported in the Brazilian literature. Its safety and effectiveness remain obscure. We report the case of a patient presenting recurrence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension five years after the first pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and requiring a second operation for resolution of the symptoms.


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Pulmonary embolism; Endarterectomy/methods.


14 - Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis

Aspergilose pulmonar necrotizante crônica

Eduardo Felipe Barbosa Silva, Melânio de Paula Barbosa, Marco Antônio Alves de Oliveira, Rosane Rodrigues Martins, Jefferson Fontinele e Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):95-98

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis is one of the forms of pulmonary aspergillosis typically found in mildly immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a female patient with complaints of chronic productive cough, fever and asthenia. She reported previous corticosteroid use. Computed tomography of the chest revealed consolidation with interposed cavitation in the right upper lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed purulent fluid within the tracheobronchial tree and an endobronchial exophytic lesion. The results of the biopsy of that lesion and the transbronchial biopsy were consistent with aspergillosis. Based on the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. Treated with itraconazole, the patient presented a favorable clinical-radiological evolution.


Keywords: Aspergillosis; Lung diseases, fungal; Itraconazole. Resumo


15 - Extralobar pulmonary sequestration with hemothorax secondary to pulmonary infarction

Sequestro extralobar com hemotórax secundário a infarto pulmonar

Darcy Ribeiro Pinto Filho, Alexandre José Gonçalves Avino, Suzan Lúcia Brancher Brandão

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(1):99-102

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon condition that accounts for 0.5-6% of all pulmonary malformations and is typically diagnosed in childhood. Of the two forms of pulmonary sequestration, intralobar and extralobar, the latter is less frequently encountered. The current report describes the case of a 32-year-old female patient with chest and abdominal pain. Imaging (chest X-rays and computed tomography scans of the chest) revealed consolidation and pleural effusion. The initial thoracocentesis revealed hemothorax. Subsequent diagnostic video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed extralobar pulmonary sequestration. Consequently, the therapeutic decision was to make the conversion to thoracotomy in order to resect the lesion and safely ligate the intercostal vascular pedicle.


Keywords: Bronchopulmonary sequestration; Hemothorax; Pulmonary infarction.



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