Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 5  (/May)


Original Article

3 - Accuracy of clinical examination findings in the diagnosis of COPD

Acurácia do exame clínico no diagnóstico da DPOC

Waldo Luís Leite Dias de Mattos, Leonardo Gilberto Haas Signori, Fernando Kessler Borges, Jorge Augusto Bergamin, Vivian Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):404-408

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: Simple diagnostic methods can facilitate the diagnosis of COPD, which is a major public health problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of clinical variables in the diagnosis of COPD. Methods: Patients with COPD and control subjects were prospectively evaluated by two investigators regarding nine clinical variables. The likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of COPD was determined using a logistic regression model. Results: The study comprised 98 patients with COPD (mean age, 62.3 ± 12.3 years; mean FEV1, 48.3 ± 21.6%) and 102 controls. The likelihood ratios (95% CIs) for the diagnosis of COPD were as follows: 4.75 (2.29-9.82; p < 0.0001) for accessory muscle recruitment; 5.05 (2.72-9.39; p < 0.0001) for pursed-lip breathing; 2.58 (1.45‑4.57; p < 0.001) for barrel chest; 3.65 (2.01-6.62; p < 0.0001) for decreased chest expansion; 7.17 (3.75-13.73; p < 0.0001) for reduced breath sounds; 2.17 (1.01-4.67; p < 0.05) for a thoracic index ≥ 0.9; 2.36 (1.22-4.58; p < 0.05) for laryngeal height ≤ 5.5 cm; 3.44 (1.92-6.16; p < 0.0001) for forced expiratory time ≥ 4 s; and 4.78 (2.13-10.70; p < 0.0001) for lower liver edge ≥ 4 cm from lower costal edge. Inter-rater reliability for those same variables was, respectively, 0.57, 0.45, 0.62, 0.32, 0.53, 0.32, 0.59, 0.52 and 0.44 (p < 0.0001 for all). Conclusions: Various clinical examination findings could be used as diagnostic tests for COPD.


Keywords: Physical examination; Diagnosis; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


4 - Association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

Associação entre medidas do estado nutricional e a função pulmonar de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística

Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda Chaves, José Augusto Alves de Britto, Cristiano Queiroz de Oliveira, Miriam Martins Gomes, Ana Lúcia Pereira da Cunha

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):409-414

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the association between nutritional status measurements and pulmonary function in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Methods: We evaluated the nutritional status of 48 children and adolescents (aged 6-18 years) with cystic fibrosis based on body mass index (BMI) and body composition measurements-mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and triceps skinfold thickness (TST)-at a referral center in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pulmonary function was assessed by means of spirometry, using FEV1 to classify the severity of airway obstruction. We used Student's t-tests for comparisons between proportions and linear regression analysis for associations between continuous variables. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The evaluation of nutritional status based on BMI identified a smaller number of malnourished patients than did that based on MAMC (14 vs. 25 patients, respectively). Most of the patients presented mild pulmonary disease. Mean FEV1 was 82.5% of predicted. Pulmonary function was found to correlate significantly with BMI, MAMC and TST (p = 0.001, p = 0.001 and p = 0.03, respectively). All subjects with moderate or severe pulmonary involvement were considered malnourished based on BMI and body composition parameters. Of the 25 patients considered malnourished based on body composition (MAMC), 19 were considered well-nourished based on their BMI. Conclusions: In the present study, all nutritional status measurements correlated directly with the pulmonary function of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. However, body composition measurements allowed earlier detection of nutritional deficiencies.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Body composition; Spirometry; Nutrition assessment.


5 - Comparison of three sets of reference equations for spirometry in children and adolescents with distinct body mass indices

Comparação entre três equações de referência para a espirometria em crianças e adolescentes com diferentes índices de massa corpórea

Sarah Costa Drumond, Maria Jussara Fernandes Fontes, Irmgard de Assis, Marco Antônio Duarte, Joel Alves Lamounier, Luciana de Carvalho Lopes Orlandi, Maria da Glória Rodrigues Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):415-422

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare FEV1 and FVC, calculated using three sets of reference equations (devised by Polgar & Promadhat, Hsu et al. and Mallozi in 1971, 1979 and 1995, respectively), and to determine whether the three are similar in predicting lung function in children and adolescents with distinct body mass indices (BMIs). Methods: The individuals were separated into four groups in accordance with the reference standards of the National Center for Health Statistics: underweight (UW), normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB). All were then submitted to spirometry. Results: We evaluated 122 healthy children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years. The FVC values predicted for NW females and UW males through the use of the Hsu et al. equation were significantly higher than the measured values, as were the FEV1 values for UW females and males predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat and Hsu et al. equations. In NW females, the FEV1 values predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat equation were significantly higher than were the measured values. Conclusions: In individuals with distinct BMIs, the measured FVC and FEV1 values were not equivalent to those predicted via the Polgar & Promadhat and Hsu et al. equations. The same was not true for the Mallozi equations. The BMI was not a relevant factor for the predictive index of these equations; therefore, the Mallozi equations can be used without alteration for children and adolescents with distinct BMIs.


Keywords: Spirometry; Reference values; Body mass index; Child; Adolescent.


6 - Validation of a treadmill six-minute walk test protocol for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

Validação de um protocolo para o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em esteira para avaliação de pacientes com hipertensão arterial pulmonar

Viviane Moreira de Camargo, Barbara do Carmo dos Santos Martins, Carlos Jardim, Caio Julio Cesar Fernandes, Andre Hovnanian, Rogério Souza

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):423-430

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To develop and validate a protocol for the treadmill six-minute walk test (tread6MWT) to evaluate patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: The study population comprised 73 patients with PAH, diagnosed by means of right heart catheterization, with or without NO inhalation. All patients performed a hallway 6MWT and three tread6MWTs based on a pre-determined incremental speed protocol and interposed by a rest period. The patients who had been submitted to hemodynamic testing using NO performed the third tread6MWT while inhaling the same dose of NO that had been used during the catheterization. Results: We found that the treadmill six-minute walk distance (tread6MWD) correlated with hemodynamic data, functional class and the hallway six-minute walk distance (6MWD). In addition, the tread6MWD correlated significantly with survival, thereby confirming the correlation with disease severity. Inhalation of NO during the tread6MWT led to variations that were consistent with the hemodynamic changes induced by the same dose of inhaled NO, suggesting that the protocol developed can reflect the effect of therapeutic interventions. Conclusions: We conclude that the tread6MWD is a useful prognostic and functional marker for the routine evaluation of PAH patients.


Keywords: Hypertension, pulmonary; Exercise test; Hemodynamics.


7 - Bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation: HRCT findings

Achados de TCAR nas pneumonias bacterianas após transplante de medula óssea

Luiz Otávio de Mattos Coelho, Taísa Davaus Gasparetto, Dante Luiz Escuissato, Edson Marchiori

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):431-435

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe HRCT findings in patients with bacterial pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Methods: This was a retrospective study involving 30 patients diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia in whom HRCT of the chest was performed within 24 h after the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis was confirmed, based on a positive culture of sputum or bronchial aspirate, together with a positive pleural fluid or blood culture, within one week after symptom onset. There were 20 male patients and 10 female patients. The median age was 21 years (range, 1-41 years). The BMT had been performed for the treatment of the following: chronic myeloid leukemia, in 14 cases; severe aplastic anemia, in 6; acute myeloid leukemia, in 4; Fanconi's anemia, in 3; and acute lymphocytic leukemia, in 3. Two radiologists analyzed the HRCT scans and reached their final decisions by consensus. Results: The most common HRCT findings were air-space consolidation (in 60%), small centrilobular nodules (in 50%), ground-glass opacities (in 40%), bronchial wall thickening (in 20%), large nodules (in 20%), pleural lesions (in 16.7%) and tree-in-bud opacities (in 10%). The pulmonary lesions were distributed in the central and peripheral areas in 15 patients, whereas they were exclusively peripheral in 11. Lesions were located in the lower and middle lobes of the lung in 22 and 20 patients, respectively. Conclusions: The most common HRCT findings in our patient sample were air-space consolidation, small centrilobular nodules and ground-glass opacities, most often in the central and peripheral regions of the middle and lower lung zones.


Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation; Pneumonia, bacterial; Tomography, X-Ray Computed.


8 - The impact of smoking cessation on patient quality of life

Impacto da cessação tabágica na qualidade de vida dos pacientes

Maria Penha Uchoa Sales, Maria Irenilza Oliveira, Isabela Melo Mattos, Cyntia Maria Sampaio Viana, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):436-441

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after twelve months of smoking cessation. Methods: This was a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation program on the quality of life of 60 self-referred subjects, at a public hospital, during the period of August 2006 to December 2007. The program consisted of 2-h group sessions once a week during the first month and then every 15 days over six months, followed by monthly phone contacts for another six months. The treatment was based on behavior modification and the use of bupropion in combination with nicotinic replacement therapy. Abstinence was verified by exhaled CO measurements. Patient HRQoL was quantified using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Differences in quality of life scores between quitters and non-quitters at twelve months after the initial intervention were evaluated using analysis of covariance with baseline characteristics as covariates. Results: Self-reported quality of life scores were significantly higher among the 40 quitters than among the 20 non-quitters. The following SF-36 domains were most affected: role-emotional (p = 0.008); general health (p = 0.006); vitality (p < 0.001); and mental health (p = 0.002). At twelve months after the smoking cessation intervention, the SF-36 mental component and physical component summary scores were higher among quitters than among non-quitters (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings illustrate that smoking abstinence is related to better HRQoL, especially in aspects of mental health.


Keywords: Quality of life; Smoking cessation; Questionnaires.


9 - Prevalence of and variables related to smoking among medical students at a university in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil

Prevalência e fatores associados ao tabagismo em estudantes de medicina de uma universidade em Passo Fundo (RS)

Leandro Mazzoleni Stramari, Munique Kurtz, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):442-448

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among medical students, as well as to evaluate the profile of this group. Methods: A total of 316 medical students (98.7% of the total) at the University of Passo Fundo, in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil, completed a self-report questionnaire with questions on tobacco intake and on attitudes related to smoking. In accordance with the World Health Organization guidelines, the students were classified as daily smokers, occasional smokers, former smokers or nonsmokers, those in the two first categories being considered active smokers. Results: We found that 16.5% of the students were active smokers (daily smokers, 5.4%; occasional smokers, 11.1%) and that 3.5% were former smokers. The mean age was 22.2 ± 2.4 years. Factors significantly associated with the smoking habit (p < 0.05) were male gender, paternal smoking, regular alcohol consumption and use of antidepressants or anxiolytics. For the majority (69.2%) of the smokers, the age at smoking onset was 15-19 years of age, and the main motivations to start smoking were self-initiative and influence of friends. The conceptualization of smoking as an illness was significantly higher among the nonsmokers. In 70.6% of the smokers, tobacco intake was 1-10 cigarettes a day. Among the smokers, 92.3% agreed that smoking is harmful to health, 67.3% had tried to quit smoking, 96.0% believed themselves able to do so, and 87.2% intended to quit smoking. Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking remains significant among medical students. Therefore, it is fundamental that we develop more effective strategies for smoking prevention and cessation in order to reduce the number of smokers among future doctors.


Keywords: Smoking; Prevalence; Students, medical; Behavior.


10 - Health team training and active community surveillance: strategies for the detection of TB cases

Treinamento da equipe de saúde e busca ativa na comunidade: estratégias para a detecção de casos de TB

Mônica Cardoso Façanha, Marina Alves Melo, Francisca de Fátima Vasconcelos, José Roberto Pereira de Sousa, Adivania de Souza Pinheiro, Ivna Aguiar Porto, Julianne Martins Parente

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):449-454

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the impact that Family Health Program (FHP) team training and active surveillance have on the detection of TB cases in a low-income community in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: The study was performed in an area with approximately 25,000 inhabitants, served by a health care center with five FHP teams, in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil. Although all of the teams were trained, active surveillance was carried out only in one of the areas (area 5). We compared the number of TB cases detected in each of the five areas prior to and after the intervention. We also compared the number of TB cases detected in area 5 to the number of those detected in the other areas, as well as to the citywide number of reported TB cases in Fortaleza, within the same period. Results: The number of TB cases detected in the area studied increased from 1 in 2002 to 22 in 2004 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the number of TB cases in area 5 and that observed for each of the other four areas (p > 0.05). There was a significant increase in the number of TB cases detected in the area studied when compared to the city as a whole (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Training and sensitization of FHP professionals were effective in promoting an increase in the number of TB cases detected in a low-income community.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Communicable disease control; Family health program; Epidemiologic surveillance.


Brief Communication

11 - Physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period after abdominal surgery

Atendimento fisioterapêutico no pós-operatório imediato de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal

Luiz Alberto Forgiarini Junior, Alexandra Torres de Carvalho, Tatiane de Souza Ferreira, Mariane Borba Monteiro, Adriane Dal Bosco, Marisa Pereira Gonçalves, Alexandre Simões Dias

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):455-459

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A series of pulmonary complications can occur after abdominal surgery. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce appropriate treatment early in order to minimize postoperative complications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate patients submitted to abdominal surgery in terms of the effect of physical therapy in the immediate postoperative period. This was a randomized clinical trial, in which one group of patients was submitted to physical therapy in the postoperative recovery room and, subsequently, in the infirmary, whereas another group was submitted to physical therapy in the infirmary exclusively. We conclude that physical therapy performed in the immediate postoperative period minimizes losses in lung function and respiratory muscle strength, as well as shortening recovery room stays.


Keywords: Physical therapy (specialty); Postoperative period; Surgery/abdomen.


12 - Guided sputum sample collection and culture contamination rates in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB

Associação entre coleta de escarro guiada e taxas de contaminação de culturas para o diagnóstico de TB pulmonar

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Renata Lyrio Peres, Moises Palaci, John L. Johnson, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):460-463

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

A comparative study to evaluate contamination in cultures of morning sputum samples, comparing those collected at home under currently recommended conditions and those collected under supervision after patient orientation and education. The home and supervised collection groups produced 43 and 76 sputum samples, respectively. The contamination rate was nearly 3-times higher among samples collected at home than among those collected under supervision (37% vs. 13%, p < 0.05; OR = 0.25). The simple educational and hygiene measures described can decrease the contamination rate among sputum samples collected for diagnostic culture.


Keywords: Tuberculosis/diagnosis; Sputum/microbiology; Culture techniques.


Special Article

13 - How to prevent, recognize and diagnose infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans

Infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1) de origem suína: como reconhecer, diagnosticar e prevenir

Alcyone Artioli Machado

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):464-469

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In March of 2009, a flu epidemic began in Mexico. Shortly thereafter, similar cases appeared in other countries, alerting authorities to the risk of a pandemic. This article details the principal signs and symptoms of infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus. In addition, the measures to be taken in suspected or confirmed cases are addressed, as are the procedures to follow in relation to contacts. Furthermore, the drugs used in the prophylaxis against and the treatment of infection with the H1N1 virus are described.


Keywords: Influenza A virus, H1N1 subtype; Influenza A virus; Disease outbreaks.


Review Article

14 - Avian influenza: the threat of the 21st century

Gripe aviária: a ameaça do século XXI

Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Natália Silva Champs, Antonio Carlos Castro de Toledo Junior, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça Picinin

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):470-479

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

This study aimed to review the literature on infection with the H5N1 subtype of avian influenza A virus, taking into consideration the fact that, in the event of a pandemic, children might become a major risk group. Searches were limited to the past ten years and were carried out using the following electronic databases: Medline, MD Consult, HighWire and Medscape. Children and young adults account for a significant proportion of the susceptible population. We found that more than half of the individuals infected were under 20 years of age and that one quarter were under the age of 10. The incubation period ranged from 2 to 5 days. Initial clinical manifestations are nonspecific, which hinders the diagnosis. Most of the infected individuals presented severe pneumonia, which evolved to respiratory insufficiency within an average of 4 days. Chest X-rays can reveal diffuse multifocal/interstitial infiltrates or segmental/lobar consolidation with air bronchogram. The pathogenic potential is high, with mortality rates up to 63%, indicating that the pandemic virus might present high pathogenicity and high mortality. Knowledge of the risk of a pandemic and of the measures to be taken in suspect cases constitutes an important step toward controlling a potential pandemic.


Keywords: Influenza A virus; Disease vectors; Disease outbreaks; Influenza A virus, H5N1 subtype.


Case Report

15 - Aspergilloma formation in cavitary sarcoidosis

Formação de uma aspergilloma em sarcoidose com cavitação

Chandramani Panjabi, Sandeep Sahay, Ashok Shah

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):480-483

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Pulmonary cavitation is rather uncommon in patients with sarcoidosis, and aspergilloma is even more uncommon in such cases. Here, we present the case of a 63-year-old female patient with cavitary lung disease who had been under treatment for TB for 9 months. A diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis was established based on the fiberoptic bronchoscopy finding of noncaseating granuloma. Treatment with corticosteroids led to a dramatic improvement in symptoms. While under treatment for sarcoidosis, the patient developed an aspergilloma. She presented immediate skin test reactivity to Aspergillus fumigatus, as well as positivity for A. fumigatus serum precipitins. This is the first reported case of aspergilloma formation in a patient with cavitary sarcoidosis in India.


Keywords: Sarcoidosis, pulmonary; Aspergillosis; Medical records.


16 - Pseudotumoral presentation of chronic pulmonary schistosomiasis without pulmonary hypertension

Forma pseudoneoplásica de esquistossomose pulmonar crônica sem hipertensão pulmonar

Gisane Cavalcanti Rodrigues, Domício Carvalho Lacerda, Edson da Silva Gusmão, Fernando Antônio Colares, Vinícius Turano Mota

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):484-488

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Schistosomiasis is a disease that, in Brazil, is caused by Schistosoma mansoni and is transmitted by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. This species occurs in Africa, the Antilles and South America. The parasite, developing to the adult stage in the vascular system of the host, migrates to the mesenteric veins. Each female lays approximately 400 eggs per day, and these travel from the submucosa to the intestinal lumen. There have been reported cases in which S. mansoni eggs were identified in the lungs of patients with no evidence of liver fibrosis. We report a case with this atypical presentation of the disease. The patient presented nonpleuritic chest pain, significant weight loss and dry cough. A CT scan revealed an irregular tumor in the left lower lobe. However, a lung biopsy revealed non-viable S. mansoni eggs. The patient presented no clinical signs of pulmonary or portal hypertension; nor was either identified through diagnostic tests.


Keywords: Schistosomiasis; Schistosoma mansoni; Lung diseases, parasitic.


17 - Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia accompanied by airflow obstruction

Hiperplasia de células neuroendócrinas pulmonares difusas com obstrução ao fluxo aéreo

Ester Nei Aparecida Martins Coletta, Larissa Rêgo Voss, Mariana Silva Lima, Jaquelina Sonoe Ota Arakaki, Juvêncio Câmara, Carlos D'Andretta Neto, Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(5):489-494

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia with airflow obstruction is a rare form of lung injury. All of the reported cases have been diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy. Only three of the reported cases presented with diffuse interstitial lung opacities on HRCT scans. We report three additional cases of this entity. All of the patients were female and presented with mild-to-moderate airflow obstruction. In the first case, transbronchial biopsy and imaging data were sufficient to make the diagnosis. Although the HRCT scans of all three cases revealed a mosaic pattern, that of the third patient also revealed diffuse interstitial infiltrate. In extremely rare cases, HRCT findings can simulate those seen in other interstitial lung diseases.


Keywords: Neuroendocrine cells; Carcinoid tumor; Bronchiolitis obliterans.



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