Brazilian Journal of Pulmonology

ISSN (on-line): 1806-3756 | ISSN (printed): 1806-3713


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Year 2009 - Volume 35  - Number 9  (/September)


1 - Tomographic diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema

Diagnóstico tomográfico de enfisema pulmonar

Klaus Loureiro Irion, Edson Marchiori, Bruno Hochhegger

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):

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Original Article

2 - Knowledge of and technique for using inhalation devices among asthma patients and COPD patients

Técnica e compreensão do uso dos dispositivos inalatórios em pacientes com asma ou DPOC

Maria Luiza de Moraes Souza, Andrea Cristina Meneghini, Érica Ferraz, Elcio Oliveira Vianna, Marcos Carvalho Borges

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):824-831

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text Appendix

Objective: To evaluate knowledge of and techniques for using prescribed inhalation devices among patients with asthma or COPD treated at a tertiary teaching hospital. Methods: Patients were assessed after medical visits, and their physicians were blinded to this fact. Patients were asked to demonstrate their inhaler technique and were then interviewed regarding their knowledge of inhalation devices, control of the disease and instructions received during medical visits. Results: We included 120 volunteers: 60 with asthma and 60 with COPD. All of the asthma patients and 98.3% of the COPD patients claimed to know how to use inhaled medications. In the sample as a whole, 113 patients (94.2%) committed at least one error when using the inhalation device. Patients committed more errors when using metered-dose inhalers than when using the dry-powder inhalers Aerolizer® (p < 0.001) or Pulvinal® (p < 0.001), as well as committing more errors when using the Aerolizer® inhaler than when using the Pulvinal® inhaler (p < 0.05). Using the metered-dose, Pulvinal® and Aerolizer® inhalers, the COPD group patients committed more errors than did the asthma group patients (p = 0.0023, p = 0.0065 and p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions: Although the majority of the patients claimed to know how to use inhalation devices, the fact that 94.2% committed at least one error shows that their technique was inappropriate and reveals a discrepancy between understanding and practice. Therefore, it is not sufficient to ask patients whether they know how to use inhalation devices. Practical measures should be taken in order to minimize errors and optimize treatment.


Keywords: Metered dose inhalers; Nebulizers and vaporizers; Asthma; Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive.


3 - Characteristics associated with complete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors

Características associadas à ressecção cirúrgica completa de tumores malignos primários do mediastino

Jefferson Luiz Gross, Ulisses Augusto Correia Rosalino, Riad Naim Younes, Fábio José Haddad, Rodrigo Afonso da Silva, Antonio Bomfim Marçal Avertano Rocha

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):832-838

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Objective: To identify preoperative characteristics associated with complete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors. Methods: Between 1996 and 2006, 42 patients with primary malignant mediastinal tumors were submitted to surgery with curative intent at a single facility. Patient charts were reviewed in order to collect data related to demographics, clinical manifestation, characteristics of mediastinal tumors and imaging aspects of invasiveness. Results: The surgical resection was considered complete in 69.1% of the patients. Cases of incomplete resection were attributed to invasion of the following structures: large blood vessels (4 cases); the superior vena cava (3 cases); the heart (2 cases); the lung and chest wall (3cases); and the trachea (1 case). Overall survival was significantly better among the patients submitted to complete surgical resection than among those submitted to incomplete resection. The frequency of incomplete resection was significantly higher in cases in which the tumor had invaded organs other than the lung (as identified through imaging studies) than in those in which it was restricted to the lung (47.6% vs. 14.3%; p = 0.04). None of the other preoperative characteristics analyzed were found to be associated with complete resection. Conclusions: Preoperative radiological evidence of invasion of organs other than the lung is associated with the incomplete surgical resection of primary malignant mediastinal tumors.


Keywords: Thoracic surgery; Survival rate; Mediastinal neoplasms; Diagnostic imaging.


4 - Evolution of exogenous lipoid pneumonia in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and the role of bronchoalveolar lavage

Evolução da pneumonia lipoide exógena em crianças: aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o papel da lavagem broncoalveolar

Selma Maria de Azevedo Sias, Angela Santos Ferreira, Pedro Augusto Daltro, Regina Lúcia Caetano, José da Silva Moreira, Thereza Quirico-Santos

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):838-845

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To present aspects of the evolution of lipoid pneumonia in children, based on clinical, radiological and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings, emphasizing the importance of bronchoalveolar lavage for the diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We included 28 children, with a mean age of 20 months (range, 1-108 months), diagnosed with chronic pneumonia refractory to antimicrobial therapy, with TB or with a combination of the two. Most of the children had at least one risk factor for aspiration, and all of them had a history of mineral oil ingestion for intestinal constipation (23/28) or complicated ascaridiasis (5/28). Clinical evaluations, tomographic evaluations and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were carried out at the beginning of treatment and throughout a follow-up period of 24 months. Results: Tachypnea and cough were the most common symptoms. The most common radiological alterations were areas of consolidation (23/28), perihilar infiltrates (13/28) and hyperinflation (11/28). Chest CT scans showed areas of consolidation with air bronchogram (24/28), decreased attenuation in the areas of consolidation (16/28), ground-glass opacities (3/28) and crazy-paving pattern (1/28). In the analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Sudan staining revealed foamy macrophages, confirming the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. After treatment with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages (mean = 9.6), 20 children became asymptomatic, 18 of those presenting normal tomographic images. Conclusions: A diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia should be considered in patients with chronic refractory pneumonia or TB, especially if there is a history of mineral oil ingestion. Bronchoscopy with multiple bronchoalveolar lavages was an efficient treatment for the clearance of mineral oil from the lung parenchyma and the prevention of fibrosis. This strategy contributed to reducing the morbidity of lipoid pneumonia, which remains a rare diagnosis.


Keywords: Pneumonia, lipid; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Treatment outcome.


5 - Factors associated with the minimal clinically important difference for health-related quality of life after physical conditioning in patients with COPD

Fatores associados à diferença clinicamente significativa da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde após condicionamento físico em pacientes com DPOC

Victor Zuniga Dourado, Letícia Cláudia de Oliveira Antunes, Suzana Erico Tanni, Irma Godoy

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):846-853

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To identify factors associated with the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after physical conditioning in patients with COPD. Methods: Thirty-five patients were submitted to a 12-week program of physical conditioning (strength training plus low-intensity aerobic exercise). Body composition, incremental treadmill test results, endurance treadmill test results, six-minute walk test results, peripheral muscle strength, MIP, baseline dyspnea index (BDI) and Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were assessed at baseline and after the program, thus allowing the variations (Δ) to be calculated. The MCID for HRQoL was defined as a reduction of ≥ 4% in the SGRQ total score. Subjects who responded to the program, achieving the MCID for HRQoL, were allocated to the responders (R) group (n = 24), and the remainder were allocated to the non-responders (NR) group (n = 11). Results: The values obtained for the following variables were significantly higher in group R than in group NR (p < 0.05): FEV1 (1.48 ± 0.54 L vs. 1.04 ± 0.34 L); VEF1/FVC (47.9 ± 11.7% vs. 35.5 ± 10.7%); PaO2 (74.1 ± 9.7 mmHg vs. 65.0 ± 8.9 mmHg); and ΔBDI, expressed as median and interquartile range (2.0 [0.0-3.5] vs. 0.0 [0.0-1.0]). The ΔBDI correlated significantly with the ΔSGRQ symptoms domain score, activity domain score and total score (r = 0.44, 0.60 and 0.62, respectively, p < 0.01 for all). After logistic regression, only ΔBDI remained as a predictor of MCID for HRQoL. Conclusions: Achieving the MCID for HRQoL after physical conditioning is associated with dyspnea reduction in COPD patients. Therefore, there is a need to develop treatment strategies designed to interrupt the dyspnea-inactivity-dyspnea cycle in such patients.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Quality of life; Dyspnea; Exercise; Rehabilitation.


6 - Respiratory patterns in spirometric tests of adolescents and adults with cystic fibrosis

Padrões ventilatórios na espirometria em pacientes adolescentes e adultos com fibrose cística

Bruna Ziegler, Paula Maria Eidt Rovedder, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin, Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):854-859

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Objective: To evaluate spirometric patterns of respiratory disorders and their relationship with functional severity and maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study including adolescents and adults with CF. All of the patients were submitted to spirometry. Patients were classified as having preserved respiratory function, obstructive lung disease (OLD), OLD with reduced FVC, presumptive restrictive lung disease (RLD) or mixed obstructive and restrictive lung disease (MORLD). Maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes were assessed using FEF25-75%, FEF75% and FEF75%/FVC. We included 65 normal subjects, also submitted to spirometry, as a control group. Results: The study group included 65 patients: 8 (12.3%) with preserved lung function; 18 (27.7%) with OLD; 24 (36.9%) with OLD and reduced FVC; 5 (7.7%) with presumptive RLD; and 10 (15.4%) with MORLD. The FEV1 was significantly lower in the OLD with reduced FVC group and the MORLD group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). In the patients with preserved respiratory function, FEF25-75% and FEF75% were significantly reduced in 1 patient, as was FEF75%/FVC in 2 patients. Conclusions: The respiratory pattern was impaired in 88% of the patients with CF. The most common pattern was OLD with reduced FVC. The degree of functional impairment was greater in the OLD with reduced FVC group and in the MORLD group than in the other groups. Maximal expiratory flows at low lung volumes were impaired in a low percentage of patients with preserved respiratory function.


Keywords: Cystic fibrosis; Respiratory function tests; Spirometry; Maximal expiratory flow-volume curves.


7 - Comparison of the effects that two different respiratory physical therapy techniques have on cardiorespiratory parameters in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis

Comparação dos efeitos de duas técnicas fisioterapêuticas respiratórias em parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios de lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda

Melissa Karina Pupin, Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Emílio Carlos Elias Baracat

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):860-867

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To compare the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT) and vibration accompanied by postural drainage (PD) in terms of their effects on the heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and SpO2 of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB). Methods: Infants with clinical and radiological diagnosis of AVB were analyzed. The HR, RR and SpO2 were registered at four time points: prior to the procedure; and at 10, 30 and 60 min after the procedure. The patients were divided into three groups: submitted to the EFIT; submitted to vibration/PD; and control. Results: We included 81 infants, 27 per group, with a mean age of 4.52 years and a mean weight of 6.56 kg. Using ANOVA, we found that the EFIT and vibration/PD groups presented no significant differences in relation to the control group in terms of the mean values for HR, RR or SpO2 (p > 0.05). Considering only the four time points evaluated, the mean RR was significantly lower in the EFIT and vibration/PD groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In terms of overall improvement of cardiorespiratory parameters, neither the EFIT nor vibration/PD provided any benefit to infants with BVA. However, over time, respiratory physical therapy seems to contribute to decreasing the RR in these patients.


Keywords: Bronchiolitis, viral; Physical therapy modalities; Infant.


8 - Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

Avaliação computacional de enfisema pulmonar em TC: comparação entre um sistema desenvolvido localmente e um sistema de uso livre

John Hebert da Silva Felix, Paulo César Cortez, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa Costa, Simone Castelo Branco Fortaleza, Eanes Delgado Barros Pereira, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):868-876

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Objective: To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. Methods: Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm2, mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < −950 Hounsfield units (RA −950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. Results: Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA −950 and Perc15 (r2 = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: The SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyperinflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients.


Keywords: Pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive; Emphysema; Tomography, X-ray computed; Decision making, computer-assisted.


9 - Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: validation for use in Brazil

Validação da escala de sonolência de Epworth em português para uso no Brasil

Alessandra Naimaier Bertolazi, Simone Chaves Fagondes, Leonardo Santos Hoff, Vinícius Dallagasperina Pedro, Sérgio Saldanha Menna Barreto, Murray W. Johns

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):877-883

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a Portuguese-language version of the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) for use in Brazil. Methods: The steps involved in creating the ESS in Brazilian Portuguese (ESS-BR) were as follows: translation; back-translation; comparison (by a committee) between the translation and the back-translation; and testing in bilingual individuals. The ESS-BR was applied to a group of patients who were submitted to overnight polysomnography in order to identify obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), insomnia and primary snoring. A control group was composed of subjects with a history of normal sleep habits, without reported snoring. Results: A total of 114 patients and 21 controls were included. The 8-item scores of the ESS-BR had an overall reliability coefficient of 0.83. The study group was composed of 59 patients with OSAHS, 34 patients with primary snoring and 21 patients with insomnia. One-way ANOVA demonstrated significant differences in ESS-BR scores among the four diagnostic groups (p < 0.001). Post-hoc tests between groups showed that the ESS-BR scores of the patients with insomnia did not differ from those of the controls (p > 0.05). The ESS-BR scores were significantly higher for OSAHS patients and for primary snorers than for controls (p < 0.05). In addition, the scores for OSAHS patients were significantly higher than were those for primary snorers (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study demonstrate that the ESS-BR is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of daytime sleepiness, equivalent to its original version when applied to individuals who speak Brazilian Portuguese.


Keywords: Validation studies; Sleep disorders; Cross-cultural comparison; Disorders of excessive somnolence.


10 - Factors associated with nonadherence to TB chemoprophylaxis in Vitória, Brazil: a historical cohort study

Fatores associados ao abandono da quimioprofilaxia de TB no município de Vitória (ES): um estudo de coorte histórica

Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel, Ana Paula Brioschi, Letícia Molino Guidoni, Anne Caroline Barbosa Cerqueira, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Geisa Fregona, Reynaldo Dietze

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):884-891

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To describe the factors associated with nonadherence to TB chemoprophylaxis in patients older than 15 years of age treated via referral TB control programs. Methods: A historical cohort study was carried out based on medical charts related to cases treated via referral TB control programs in the city of Vitória, Brazil, between 2002 and 2007. Cases of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were stratified into two groups: health care workers (HCW group); and individuals who were not health care workers (NHCW group). Results: A total of 395 patients were included in the study: 35 in the HCW group and 360 in the NHCW group. The mean age in the HCW and NHCW groups was 34.8 and 32.4 years, respectively (p = 0.36). Of the 35 patients in the HCW group, 29 (82.9%) were female, compared with 180 (50.0%) of the 360 patients in the NHCW group. In the HCW and NHCW groups, respectively, 15 (42.9%) and 169 (46.9%) of the patients were contacts of TB cases. In addition, 9 (25.7%) and 157 (78.5%) the HCW and NHCW group patients, respectively, were HIV-infected. Nonadherence to chemoprophylaxis was 37.1% and 21.9% in the HCW and NHCW groups, respectively (p = 0.045). In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with nonadherence were being a health care worker (OR = 8.60; 95% CI: 2.09-35.41), being HIV-infected (OR = 4.57; 95% CI: 1.2-17.5) and having had contact with a TB patient (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.15-6.12). Conclusions: In order to improve adherence to TB chemoprophylaxis, new TB control program strategies are needed, especially for health care workers and HIV-infected patients.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Chemoprevention; Isoniazid.


11 - Active tuberculosis in surgical patients with negative preoperative sputum smear results

Tuberculose ativa em pacientes cirúrgicos com baciloscopia negativa no pré‑operatório

Daniele Cristina Cataneo, Raul Lopes Ruiz Jr, Antonio José Maria Cataneo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):892-898

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To determine the proportion of negative preoperative sputum smear results among patients presenting active TB, as identified through the evaluation of surgical samples. Methods: A retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery between 2003 and 2006 at a university hospital and receiving a histopathological diagnosis of active or latent TB. We reviewed patient histories, TB-related clinical aspects, acid-fast bacilli (AFB) test results, type of surgery performed and histopathological findings in surgical samples. Results: We included 43 patients, 27 of whom were male. The mean age was 44 ± 19 years. Twenty-eight patients had a history of TB (treated appropriately), and 15 reported no history of the disease. The main reason for seeking treatment was recurrent infection, followed by alterations seen in imaging studies. Of the 43 patients, 35 underwent preoperative AFB testing: 32 tested negative, and 3 tested positive. Among those 35 patients, the histopathological diagnosis was active TB in 26 and latent TB in 9. The 8 patients not submitted to preoperative AFB testing were also diagnosed with latent TB. The proportion of active TB in patients with negative sputum smear results was 72% (23/32), whereas that of negative sputum smear results in patients with active TB was 88% (23/26). Only 11.5% (3/26) of the patients had tested positive for AFB. Conclusions: Direct sputum smear microscopy has a very low yield. Many previously treated patients can present negative sputum smear results and yet have active TB. Active TB can be mistaken for secondary infections or for cancer.


Keywords: Tuberculosis; Diagnosis, differential; Sputum; Thoracic surgery; Thoracic surgery, video-assisted.


Review Article

12 - Viral pneumonia: epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

Pneumonias virais: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, fisiopatológicos e tratamento

Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):899-906

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In humans, the most common types of infection are respiratory tract infections, among which viral infections predominate. Viruses can also infect the low respiratory tract, causing bronchiolitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. The objective of this review article was to show epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of viral community-acquired pneumonia. These types of pneumonia are commonly caused by influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; or adenovirus. We also address the types of pneumonia caused by hantaviruses, metapneumoviruses and rhinoviruses.


Keywords: Pneumonia, viral; Influenza, human; Respiratory syncytial virus infections; Hantavirus.


Update Course - Mycoses

13 - Chapter 1 - Laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary mycoses

Capítulo 1 - Diagnóstico laboratorial das micoses pulmonares

Melissa Orzechowski Xavier, Flávio de Mattos Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Severo

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):907-919

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

In this era of immunosuppression and transplantation, it is imperative that laboratory scientists remain in close communication with physicians. In patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the diagnosis of mycoses must be rapid, which is complicated, requiring the cooperation and collaboration of a number of professionals from various fields of expertise. In this paper, the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infection is reviewed. The following topics are included: host factors such as immunological response and predisposing anatomical features; collection, transport and storage of specimens; laboratory processing of samples; direct microscopy; staining techniques, culture and identification of fungi; laboratory biosafety; tissue tropism and reactions; serology; and antigen detection.


Keywords: Mycology; Laboratories, hospital; Diagnostic techniques and procedures; Lung diseases, fungal.


14 - Chapter 2 - Coccidioidomycosis

Capítulo 2 - Coccidioidomicose

Antônio de Deus Filho

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):920-930

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Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. Infection is acquired by inhalation of infective arthroconidia that live in the soil. In 60% of cases, the infection is benign and resolves spontaneously. In the northern hemisphere, coccidioidomycosis is endemic to arid and semi-arid regions at latitudes between 40°N and 40°S, particularly in the southwestern United States and in northern Mexico. In the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, cases of coccidioidomycosis have recently been reported in four states: Piauí (100 cases); Ceará (20 cases); Maranhão (6 cases); and Bahia (2 cases). The illness manifests in one of three clinical forms: the primary pulmonary form; the progressive pulmonary form; or the disseminated form. On average, the symptoms of respiratory infection appear 10 days after exposure. The diagnosis is made by the isolation of Coccidioides sp. in culture or by positive results from smear microscopy (10% potassium hydroxide test), periodic acid-Schiff staining or silver staining of any suspect material (sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, skin exudate, lymph node aspirate, etc.) Agar gel immunodiffusion is the diagnostic test most widely used. The most common finding on X-rays and CT scans is diffuse distribution of multiple pulmonary nodules, most of which are cavitated. The recommended treatment is fluconazole or itraconazole, the mean dose ranging from 200 to 400 mg/day, although as much as 1,200 mg/day is used in certain cases. In severe cases, amphotericin B can be the drug of choice. In cases of neurological involvement, the recommended treatment is administration of fluconazole, at a minimum dose of 400 mg/day.


Keywords: Mycoses/immunology; Coccidioidomycosis; Lung diseases, fungal.


Case Series

15 - Outbreak of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among patients hospitalized in a bone marrow transplant ward: tomographic findings

Surto de aspergilose pulmonar invasiva em enfermaria de transplante de medula óssea: achados tomográficos

Daniela Batista de Almeida Freitas, Ana Cláudia Piovesan, Gilberto Szarf, Dany Jasinowodolinski, Gustavo de Souza Portes Meirelles

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):931-936

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Objective: To evaluate the main aspects on CT scans of six patients hospitalized in a bone marrow transplant ward, diagnosed with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), during an in-hospital outbreak of the disease. Methods: We reviewed 10 chest CT scans of six neutropenic or immunocompromised patients hospitalized in the hematology and bone marrow transplant ward of the Hospital São Paulo, in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who were diagnosed with IPA between April of 2007 and October of 2007. The diagnosis of IPA was confirmed by anatomopathological findings (in 2 cases), culture (in 3 cases) or appropriate treatment response (in 1 case). Results: We evaluated the CT scans of three male and three female patients, ranging from 22 to 58 years of age. The most common tomographic findings were nodules (5/6 cases) and areas of consolidation (2/6 cases). The nodules were more often multiple (3/5 cases), with irregular contours (4/5 cases) and accompanied by the halo sign (3/5 cases). One case presented multiple, centrally distributed areas of consolidation, and another presented an isolated, peripheral area of consolidation. Areas of ground-glass attenuation and septal thickening were found in three and two patients, respectively. Bilateral pleural effusion occurred in three cases. Conclusions: Consolidation, nodules, septal thickening, pleural effusion and ground-glass opacities were the principal tomographic findings in the six patients hospitalized in the abovementioned ward during the IPA outbreak. The nodules were often (in 67% of the cases) accompanied by the halo sign, a classically described finding in patients with IPA.


Keywords: Aspergillosis; Lung diseases, fungal; Neutropenia; Bone marrow transplantation; Tomography, X-Ray computed.


Case Report

16 - Use of virtual bronchoscopy in children with suspected foreign body aspiration

Uso da broncoscopia virtual em pacientes pediátricos com suspeita de aspiração de corpo estranho

Tiago Neves Veras, Gilberto Hornburg, Adrian Maurício Stockler Schner, Leonardo Araújo Pinto

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):937-941

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Foreign body aspiration (FBA) into the tracheobronchial tree is a common problem in children, especially in those under three years of age. Preliminary radiological evaluation reveals normal chest X-rays in nearly 30% of such patients. Tomography-generated virtual bronchoscopy (VB) can facilitate the early diagnosis and rapid management of these cases. The definitive treatment is the removal of the foreign body by means of rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. The objective of this study was to describe the use of VB in two patients with suspicion of FBA, as well as to review the literature regarding this topic. The two patients presented with sudden onset of respiratory symptoms and history of cough or choking with foods before these symptoms. Both patients were submitted to VB. In both cases, we detected an endobronchial foreign body, which was then removed by conventional rigid bronchoscopy in one of the cases. Only recently developed, VB is a noninvasive imaging method that has potential for use in detecting foreign bodies in the airways of children. In select cases, VB can indicate the exact location of the foreign body and even preclude the need to submit patients to rigid bronchoscopy in the absence of a foreign body.


Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Pediatrics; Respiratory aspiration.


17 - Rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (Caplan's syndrome) with a classical presentation

Pneumoconiose reumatoide (síndrome de Caplan) com apresentação clássica

Eduardo Mello De Capitani, Marcelo Schweller, Cristiane Mendes da Silva, Konradin Metze, Elza Maria Figueiras Pedreira de Cerqueira, Manoel Barros Bértol

J Bras Pneumol.2009;35(9):942-946

Abstract PDF PT PDF EN Portuguese Text

Although rare, rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, also known as Caplan's syndrome, can occur in workers exposed to silica, as well as in patients with silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis or asbestosis. Prevalence is higher among patients with silicosis, despite the fact that it was originally described in coal workers with pneumoconiosis. The classical finding that defines this syndrome is that of rheumatoid nodules in the lungs, regardless of whether there are small rounded opacities suggestive of pneumoconiosis or large opacities consistent with massive pulmonary fibrosis, with or without clinical rheumatoid arthritis. We describe the case of a female patient with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed 34 years after 7 years of occupational exposure to silica at a porcelain plant. A chest X-ray showed circular opacities of 1-5 cm in diameter, bilaterally distributed at the periphery of the lungs. A CT-guided thoracic punch biopsy of one of those nodules revealed that it was rheumatoid nodule surrounded by a palisade of macrophages, which is typical of Caplan's syndrome. Aspects of diagnosis, classification and occurrence of this syndrome are discussed, emphasizing the importance of the occupational anamnesis of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and lung opacities on chest X-rays.


Keywords: Pneumoconiosis; Arthritis, rheumatoid; Caplan's syndrome; Silicosis.



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